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raio* or tht. umrwBrv or kadus 







✓SfHE object of this grammar is to assist Europeans at the beginning of 
tbeir study of the Malayalam language. The necessity of a grammar 
0 for a living langnage is not undisputed. The atory of the gentleman 
who went to Italy to study the language there, equipped with a first-rate 
Italian gtammar and accompanied by a sonant, is brought up against 
grammars. The gentleman, after having been busy for weeks and months 
with his grammar, was surprised to find that, before be was able to utter his 
first correct sentence in Italian, the servant had learned to speak fluently and 
with ease a good number of sentences picked op whilst freely mixing with 
the natives of the place. This story does not in Teality prow much against 
the use of a grammar. The gentleman may have been silly and the 
servant clever; the gentleman very probably shut himself up in his room 
with his book without carrying into practice what he had learned there. 
The book itself, very likely, was based upon tbe method of a Latin or Greek 
grammar going carefully over the Noun, the Adjective, the Pronoun, and so 
on. chapter after chapter. Nobody can be expected to uttor a sentence 
without knowing something about the Verb of the language to be mastered. 
After ail, tbe Italian learned by the servant was tbe Italian of a servant. 
In learning a living language the chief thing surely will be to identify 
oneself with the thought and life of the people, to become in some degree 
a child again and not to be ashamed to imitate like a child, to stammer 
like a child; and people who trust entirely in their grammar and Intend 
to go through it before they venture to make the Gr« attempt to speak what 
they have learned, had belter never seen any grammar at all. On tbe 
other hand, everything cannot be achieved by imitation. Educated people 
cannot help asking for reasons. They look out for a system in a new 
language. Munshis and natives, oaaally disappoint us in this respect. 
They will tell us how people talk, but not knowing wba: is puiiling to an 
European in this or that construction, they cannot remove the difficulty. 



Every European student of a foreign language have experienced that 
wha; exercitcd bis mind for a long time can be explained In a few minute- 
by somebody who ha* undergone the same difficulties and who can throw 
light upon tlw matter by referring to one’s own tongue. It is bopod this 
book will bo useful. It intends, on the whole, to do the work of a teacher 
who guides us during our first studies and who is acquainted with a!! the 
difficulties we have to encounter not merely in learning the grammar of tire 
now language, but still more in making our first attempt to apeak with 
natives and to understand what they ray. 

This is not the fits! grammar of the Malayalam language. There is 
Dr. Gundsrf s roost excellent grammar; but. being Intended as a class- 
book for Indian Colleges, it is written in Malayalam. An European, to use 
the book, must be well acquainted with the language already. Being a 
scientific grammar, Its method, of course, is synthetical. The examples are 
taken chiefly not from the colloquial language, but from the Shasuas. 
Having been written for natives it was not thought necessary to contrast the 
peculiarities of a Dra vidian language with Western tongues. This is the 
reason why the book, in spite of its excellence, can be used but sparingly by 
Europeans. On the other hand, Malayalam grammars, written in English, 
deal with Malayalam as with an European language, forcing the language 
into the pales of European terminology. And the natural consequence is 
that such books will leave us absolutely in the dark about the most impor- 
tant and the most puarling peculiarities of the language. Besides, these 
becks do not deal with Malayalam as with a living language that fitst of all 
ought to be spoken. We want to Ulk before we have carefully gone through 
all the different parts of speech, and at the very beginning, wo are in need of 
explanations about phrases which a synthetic grammar may give only after 
having gone through half tho work. Thus the analytic method has been 
adopted in this grammar. This method, now followed in the case of all 
European languages, starts from the sentence as we have to deal with sen- 
tence; and not with single wotds in picking up a new language. But another 
deviation from the general method ha* been thought advisable by the 
author. Touwaint-Langemcheidt bases his grammar of the English 
language upon Charles Ditksn's Christmas Carol, analysing itgradnally and 
deducing the grammatical rules from it. But in baaing tbc grammar upon 
any finished literary portion we haw tbc disadvantage that the practical 
wants cannot be attended to properly, difficult and complex sentences occur- 
ring at the very beginning. Hence the author preferred to prcceed from 



sentences purposely selected for meeting what would moat likely be Deeded 
in the coarse of study. Thus neither guided by grammatical considerations 
nor confined by the limits of a selection from the literatore of the language, 
practical needs and the natural process of mastering a language have been 
made the basis of this book ; and the author has tried his best to follow, as 
far as possible, the process through which a child pastes in learning to talk. 
This explains the simple and, to some degree, imperfect character of the 
sentences contained in the first chapters. The author had to reckon with 
the material at hand in these chapters. To tbs first talk of a child and the 
first attempt of a foreigner who wants to make himself understood the correct 
standard of Idiomatic language cannot be applied. On tbs other hand, edu- 
cated people in learning a language whilst picking up sentences and Imitat- 
ing them, feel themselves called upon to draw Inferences from their own 
language and to systematise the material gathered here and there. For this 
purpose the grammatical bearing of all the sentences tss not only been 
deduced, but also, wherever an opportunity offered, resemblances and 
dissimilarities between Malayalam and European tongues have been pointed 
out and by way of summaries the aim haa been to arrive gradually at a 
clearer insight into the whole system of the language. 

Somo people when perusing the book may find it wanting In perapicaity. 
These mmt be told that firit of all the book has not been written for students 
of Comparative Philology who wish within a few hours to acquaint them- 
selves with the individuality of this language in contrast to some other lang- 
uage. Secondly, it Is a matter of fact that in associating with the people of 
a foreign country it happens that this or that sentence is spoken and It 
happens that this or that has to be said, and alter all ‘varietas deleetat”. 
Besides, a student being guided by this book will gradually find that, al- 
though sentences and rules seem to follow each other In a confused manner 
and, as it were, by mere chance, as regards grammar and subject-matter the 
principle * proceed from what is easy to what is difficult " has, as far as the 
needs of practical life did allow it, been carried out. That in a book which 
intends to take the place of a teacher the maxim ‘ first the example and then 
the rule", in other words, * proceed from the concrete to the abstract”, has 
bean strictly adhered to will call for no explanation, for Langur* iter est 
per praecepta, breve et tfjicax per example". To facilitate a surrey of the 
whole system of the language and to render the book ea»y for reference, a 
detailed index at the end of it will, it Is hoped, be fonnd useful. 

And now the author ventures to offer a few hints as to the me of 
the book: 


1. The book does not do away with Ac need of a Moashi. It must 
be read with a Munshl who understands English. And much exercise in 
nsete reading i» necessary to acquire a tolerable pronunciation. Never 
dijeourage your Monahi In correcting you by your impatience. A Malayalam 
reader of progressive difficulty and containing specimens of the beat prose 
and pootry will be a great help both to European and native students if 
used in conjunction with the grammar. 

2. Be careful to lay a sound foundation. Hence do not proceed too 
quickly. The elements of the language must be very carefully attended to. 
“ Vdecen lardui assefui/ur.“ 

3. Be not satisfied until you know that what you say is correct In every 
respect. There are examples of Europeans who, after a long residence in 
this country, could not get rid of a bad pronunciation or grammatical blund- 
ers that became habitual with them from the very beginning. That you are 
understood by those you converse with does not prove the correctness of your 
language. Natives get accustomed to the mistakes that Europeans are liable 
to, and there are instances of their accepting and even imitating them. 

4. As in Malayalam the language of ordinary conversation differs 
greatly from that which is employed in poetry and in prose aiming at 
poetical diction, do not be too hasty in beginning to read poetry. For an 
ordinary gentleman, whatsoever may be his calling, it is waste of time to 
read in tbe first or even in the second year of his studies difficult poetry. 
It is a pitiable thing if one claims to have read a number of Shastras, and is 
unable to carry on an ordinary conversation wish a native not understand- 
ing English. Of course, it is not intended to discourage the study of Mala- 
yalam poetry; it is only intended as a warning against neglecting the ordi- 
nary language in favour of nitre book-language. This hint does not apply 
to a linguistic genius for whom Deitber laws noi hints are required. 

5. Begin to talk — though with stammering lips— as soon as possiblo, 
tbe very first day. Do not be afraid of making mistakes; for. Indians are 
exceedingly nice and polite in this reipoct. Along with this book, for varie- 
ty's 8»ke, suitable books may bo read. This will, besides ordinary conver- 
sation, be a test how far you have advanced in mastering the language. In 
tbe absence of a reader for Europeans, the following list of books wiil be 
found suitable: 

1st Course. 

Marsdca's 1st and 2nd Headers; Books for Bairns in Malayalam, by 
T. C. Kaliiani Amtna (M. R. A. S.); p’s Fables (BtouwodltioSo <ro»s<t<«j 
For missionaries : ‘Short Bible Stories" and some small tracts such 
as • Faithful Servant", ‘Glad Tidings", etc. 



2 nd Course. 

Mar* den's 3rd and 41b Readers; Mullyil'e 3rd Reader; Henantha Katha 
(Winter’s Tales), by 0. M. Lakihmi Amina; Padya PAtavali, 1st to 4th parts, 
edited by Valia Ko«il Tharapuran. For miBiionaries : O. & N. T. Bible 
Stories; "Historical books of the Bible; "Art of Dying Happy", etc. 

3 rd Course. 

Marsden's jtb Reader; Muliyil’s 5th Reader: Gadya M Alika, Partl.(B. 
V. Book Depatl IndulekbA — Knodalatha — Lokapavadam ; Padya Patavali, 
Jtb to 71b Parts; PaiiCatantrsm, etc. For missionaries: The Bible; Rase las 
(Paul’s); Dr. Gundert’s Church History; Life of Christ, etc. 

Mi Course . 

Manden’s 6th and 7th Readers; Gadya Mulika, Part II. Rasalcsila — 
Kfsarl — Nalacaritam — Oatiakyasfltratn: and RAmAya^am: I too Proverbs: 
Dr. Gundert’s Anthology, etc. 

Lat« on, the following books also may be read with advantage: 


1. MahibbAratam (Eiuttaiian). 

а. Halasia Mahnlmyatn (C. C. ManoAdyar). 

3. PatinAlu Vrttam. 

4. lmpattuntttu Vpttam. 

5. BhAsba RaghuvamSam. 

6- Bh&sha Kum&ra Sambhava. 

7. BhSsha Mogba SandeSam. 

8. MayQra Sand^am. 

9. Uuara-RAmailaritam. 

10. Bhisha SAkuntalaro. 


1. PrAchlna Arya Varlam. 

2. Indiayile Mahunmir. 

3. MArthAiuU Varava. 

4. Baa sera Me nun (a novel). 

5. Akbar. 

б. East Lynne in Malayalam. 



7. Siirada. 

8. Rfimnyanam (Prose;. 

Q. Sahityasabftyam. 

To those who are acquainted with the Malayalam language it need 
scarcely be pointed ont how much the author all through this work is in- 
debted to the writings of Dr. G under!. Bat he wishes further to ac- 
knowledge with gratitude the personal assistants be has received from tho 
Re*. J. Knoblcch in perusing tbs whole of tho manuscript and making 
valuable suggestions, and from a native friend. Mr. Peter Arnon, who helped 
to carry the book through the press and kindly drew attention to points that 
might ptovo objectionable to natives of this country. 

It will be an abundant compensation for the trouble of compiling this 
grammar, If it should succeed in rendering some little assistance to fellow- 
labonrers in Malabar and to the friends of its people for whom to livo and 
to work will always be a happiness to 

Preface to the 2nd edition. 

A second edition of Rev. L. J. Frohnmeycr'i Progressive Grammar 
having become necessary, the learned author, who bad returned to Europe 
in 1905, was asked by tbe publishers to bring it ont at an early date. As 
be did not see when be would find the time to comply with this request, be 
suggetted that I should undertake to revise tbe first edition and carry the 
new book through the press. But being a busy man myself, I could spare 
but a fortnight for tbe revision, which was hardly sufficient to do justice lo 
tbe task. I was, however, so fortunate as to obtain the assistance of Mr. 
MArioth Kumaran, Senior Malayalam Pandit, St. Aloysios’ College, Mangalore. 
We hope that our joint labour will result in a still wider appreciation of tbo 
author’s valuable work, which cannot but prove very useful to all European 
officials and missionaries who have the privilege of studying this interesting 


17th May. 191a. 

C. A. Schsuer. 


Intrcduetfon . 
Lomoq I. 



Alphabet . . 

& in. ODmpouod Letters 
. V. Questions . . , 

s Command . 

* Vni. Assertion . . . 

IX., X. , XL Bunion of Tima .... 

XII. , Xlll. Reason or Cause 

XIV. . XV. Condition 

XVL Mannor 

XVIL OxrdinUxm 

Ornaments ctf Speech .... 

, XX Form* of higher Language. . . 

MalayaUm Poetry and Sanskrit Forms 
Appendix I. Malayalums ......... 

, H Foreign words 

, m. Tables 




xi— it 

1 - 4 

4 — 17 

18 - 26 

28 — 80 

30 - 45 

45 — 75 

75 — 85 












Tbe Malayalam language is spoken along the west coast of Southern 
India — in Travancorc, Cochin, and British Malabar. It (s also largely spoken 
in the Kasaragod Taluk (South Canara). Malayalam, being one of the Dra- 
vidian languages, stands in such close connection with the Tamil tongac 
that the question whether Malayalam is a daughter (dialectj of Tamil {c/. 
Caldwell’s Comparative Grammar) or whether they are sisters deriving thair 
origin from one extinct language (see preface to Dr. Gooden's Dictionary), 
still remains an open one. From Malayalam poetry and from inscriptions 
preserved by the Syrian Christians and tbe Jews, (* tbe date of those docu- 
ments it probably not later than tbo 9th century”) wo see that the Verb was 
inflected to denote Person, Number, and Gender precisely as in Tamil <cf. 
254 § of this grammar). In modern Malayalam these inflections have teen 
discarded, while tho terminations denoting Tense have been retained; 
but tbe ancient Verbal forms are still employed in poetrj. Whether tbe Utter 
have ever bsen used in colloquial language seems to be an open question 
too {tf. W. Logan's Malabar I., page 93). According to Dr. Guadert 
tbe history of tbe Malayalam language commences with the Rima Clarita 
(cf § 749), composed before the introduction of tbe Sanskrit alphabet, 
perhaps two centuries before tbe Payyanur Pa(iu (Dr. Gondert assigns 
its time about 1450 A. D.). The classical epoch of tbe Malayalam 
language commences with Tunis Uu ElottaKan (living in tbe 17th century) 
to whom it owes a literature of its own, namely tbo translations of some of 
tbe most important epic poems (Siva PurSna, Dflri Mihatmya, Skanda 
Purigam, Adhyfltma Rum&yanam, Bb&ratam. Bhigavatam, etc.). During 
tbe latter half of tbe 18th century and at tbe commencement of the last 
century, Kufijan Nambiar is aid to have been the composer of a great 
many comedies («9s«wu)®<fc) and songs with dance and mimic 
Tbe Silivati, Paiin&lu Vptam. Njsiaritam, CbanakyasQtram, Pantatantram 
axe also ascribed by some to this poet 



TIppa’s invation proved a fatal bio* to the epic poetry of Malabar, and 
in consequence of British Government and Evangelical Mission work, tie 
literary aspect of the country changed altogether. Throoghoat the tgth 
Century the chief attention of the educated people in North Malabar was 
turned towards English. Tbeir belief in popular Hinduism being shaken 
and the child-llke Impetuosity and the simplicity of the primitive ages having 
gone, that age must be characterised as an epoch of unproductiveness: and 
the scanty efforts to recall the spirit of days gone by lacked power and origin- 
ality to a deplorable degree. Yet that Maiayalam poetry will not die away 
with the spirit of olden times, but is a worthy vehicle of those ideas which 
belong to the future, may be inferred not only from many valuable poetical 
productions by Christians, such as the Ajti&nakujbaram (written by Joseph 
Pen. originally Chlttn Menon, late Mnnsif of British Ccchin) which in spite 
of its polemical designation, is, for its poetical diction highly appreciated 
even by Hindus, but also from a number of reoent compositions by Hindu 
authors. It appears that with the new century a fresh effort has been made 
bv scholars of all communities to enrich the Maiayalam poetical literature. 
This literary awakening staitod with the translation of ikkuntalam by Valla 
Koil Tbampuran about ij years ago. 

Besides the epics mentioned above, the Malayaloes have not a few Folk 
Songs (<u»jo4() [cf Dr. Gundert a Ke'oppa vom Garten” and £- Die* *das 
Gottcsurthelf’l These songs, by Dr. Gur.dert called Romances, are sung by 
fishermen, boatmen, coolies and ethers, and frequently allude to historical 
occurrences (the siege of Cbaliyam Fort by the Tumudri of Calicut, life of 
the pirate Kuitnali, the deeds of Tafiioll Kurupu, Palassi Rajah's rebellion 
1797—1805, Tlppn Sultan's invasion, M4pi|U riots, etc.). Apart from the 
epic poetry, the language is as simple as possible. Whilst Mr. W. Ellis 
describes the Shastra-language of Maiayalam as a mixture of Sanskrit and 
Tamil, admitting even conjugated Sanskrit forms (“pure Sanskrit connected 
or concluded by a few words in Maiayalam" 1). these folk songs are composed 
Id the ordinary dialect and have dropped even the personal terminations 
of the Verb. They have a loose kind of metre like the German doggerel 
(Knuttelvers), bat in spite of their prolixity, poetical vigour and beauty can- 
not bo denied them. 

Turning to the Maiayalam prose, betides the Keraldlpatti (ascribed by 
some to one Kabkkattu Rnminuja) some ancient medical treatises and the 
Tcllfcherry records (chiefly A. D. 1796—1799) not much can be mentioned 
of old prose. On the adiance of Western culture, the task of moulding the 



colloquial language in such a manner as to make it an appropriate vehicle 
for conveying new ideas and ©cddcQta! knowledge, had been left almost 
entirely to foreign educationists and miss Iona ties, aided by their Indian 
assistants. This did not only result in the frequent use of English con- 
structions in Malayalam {t.g., the use of the Passive Voice, scarcely era 
occurring in classical Malayalam), but has with the difference between the 
Northern and Southern dlalocta increased the difficulty of arriving at any* 
thing like a general standard for Malayalam prose. Genuine native pro- 
ductions from the South and North of Malabar show that the difference 

between North and South is not irreconcilable. That tho Malayalam lan- 
guage has yielded to a process of modification due to Western culture and 
Christianity is a matter of course. It is for the Malayalam BiWe, good 
school books, newspapers, and periodicals to prepare the way fora standard 
Malayalam. But nothing can be hoped for until the educated part of the 
Malayalam people baa come to understand that their mother-tongue must 
be made the vehicle of modern culture making the language keep pace with 
the general national progress and the advance of civilisation. The manner 
in which the language is dealt with in Government offices and court transla- 
tions (sometimes more like a transliteration than a translation), together with 
the Anglo- Malajalam Jargon of Englisb-learning pupils does much to 
impoverish the language. 

As to the scientific aspect of the language, Mr. Ellis, at the beginning of 
the last cantury, wiotc : 4 There ©xists in Malayalam, as far as my informa- 
tion extends, no work on the language, no grammar, no dictionary. As far 

as native labour is conoenvcd, the statement is true; for besides the diction- 

aries compiled by Portuguese and iulian missionaries (completed m r 746, but 

resting upon materials accumulated in the :7th, perhaps even 16th century, 
see preface to Dr. Gundext*8 dictionary § 4) and a drat attempt at publishing 
a Malayalam grammar made by Surgeon Drummond about 1749 (compiled 
from notes presented by a Roman BishopJ nothing had been done. Just 
as the vernacular in our days is often neglected by the educated class for 
the sake of English, so in those days it was considered beneath the notice of 
the learned who gave preference to Sanskrit, which was erroneously con- 
sidered to be the mother of Malayalam. Therefore in this respect European 
scholars had to take the lead. In 1^39, “Outlines of a Grammar of the 
Malayalam Language'' for the benefit of Europeans, was written by F. Spring, 
M. A., a chaplain of the Madras Army. It is only a fragment of a grammar 
and the author failed to acquaint his readers with the ©ssentiai peculiarities 



of Malayalam a* a Dra vidian language. In 1841 the well-known gramiMr 
of the Malayalam language by Rev. Joseph Pcet was published, a book which 
was intended ‘first to assist strangers desirous of acquiring a knowledge of 
the Malayalam language, and secondly and chiefly to encourage natives ac- 
quainted with English to cultivate the study of tbeir own language". A. 
native will scarcely derive encouragement or information from that book. 
Some of the moat essential grammatical forms ate ehher misconceived or 
ignored {e.g ., the adverbial participle, the use of the conditional, tbo con- 

cessive. etc.). No real service is done to an European student by making a 
language, based on a system entirely different from European languages, as 
far as possible, agree with English grammar. Such a Procrustean method 
will never do Justice to the peculiarity of a foreign language (tf. the chapter 
on Adjectives, Relative Pronouns, etc.). For the benefit of Europeans were 
also written In 1864: -Malayalam Selections with Translations, Grammati- 
cal Analysis and Vocabulary” by A. J. Arbuthnot, Esq., M.C.S., and “A 
Short Grammar and Analysis of Malayalam Language” by Mr. Collins. In 
the year 1868 appeared Dr.Gunderl’s large Grammar, written in Malayalam 
itself. Part of this master-work of profound erudition had been pub- 
lished already in 1851 and a Flint Catechism of Malayalam Grammar for 
the use of Government Schools was publishod first in i860, and then handed 
over to Mr. Garthwaite. It has ilncc undergone different metamorpbotes 
(-The arrangement made more clear*. 1865, -revised, rearranged, and en- 
larged, 1867". translated, 1870). Tbe big grammar is a scientific grammar, 
based upon *a most scrupulous and careful perusal of native poetry, prow 
writings, judicial and other Government papers, as well as tbe common 
language". The language is treated here for the first time neither as a dialect 
of Sanskrit nor in the manner of an European language, but with a full com- 
prehension of all tbe essential characteristics of Malayalam as a Dravidian 
language. Scarcely we need add that the work meets the claims of Philology. 
It was Dr. Burnell who pronounced this grammar to be seooud to no other 
grammar of an Indian language. It is very gratifying to state that after 
the Malayalam grammar bad been introduced in Malayalam schools and the 
lead had been taken by European scholars, also' native gentlemen, with more 
or less success, have participated in the endeavour. In the same year that 
Dr. Gundert’s Large Grammar appeared. Rev. George Mathew published his 
grammar -in the language itself’, a very readable book. In 1878, Kovcnnl 
Nedungadi composed his Malayalam grammar Uom-auosorfii, offering the 
tales in poetry. 1877, another grammar was published by Tachu Muttatn. 



In 1881 even a catechism In Malayalam Rhetoric 
was published by a priest of tho Syrian Catholic Church, and in the same 
year, Mr. Govinda Pillay, B.A.. pobliahed hii "History of the Malayalam 
Language and Literature in Malayalam, a thank-worthy attempt presenting 
usefol material for a future critic. 

Of Ute years, several scholarly grammars have been written by eminent 
native linguists such as A. R. Raja Raja Varma, W. A . M. R. A. S., and 
Messrs. Seshagiri Prabhu and Mnllyil Xrisbnan. 

Regarding the lexicography of the language it must be remembered 
that after the dictionaries of the Verapolic missionaries Mr. Bailey's Diction- 
ary was published in 1846. As the chief defect of this otherwise valuablo 
work Dr. Gundert points ont "thst it does not discriminate between Malayalam 
and Sanskrit terms and leaves the stndent completely In the dark both as 
regards etymology and the proportional importance of tho words". It was 
Dr. Gnndert himself who supplied this long-felt want in publishing (1872) 
hit Malayalam and English DicUonary, the first etymological dictionary of a 
South Indian language. This dictionary aims at presenting a faithful 
picture of the whole Malayalam tongue, it endeavours to trace the origin of 
each word, and particular attention has been paid to the comparison of tho 
cognate Dra vidian languages (see preface of the dictionary §§ 7, 8). What 
Malabar owes to this dictionary I may perhaps best express in Mr. Logan's 
words: 'The lavish Industry, research, and ability displayed in this work are 
beyond all praise and hare opened up to the enquirer new and truthful ex- 
planations of what was in former days al! mystery and doubt" (Logan, Malabar, 
page 105). A great desldoratom for tho European student was a reliable 
English Malayalam dictionary, rendering accessible the treasures laid up In 
Dr. Gundert’s dictionary. 

This desideratum has at last been supplied to some extent by Mr. 
T. Zacharlas’ ‘English-Malayalam Dictionary" and by Mr. M. Krlahnan's 
‘ Anglo-Malayalam Crown Dictionary”. 

As to the distinctive features of 7rTa!avalsm as a Dravidian language the 
grammar Itself will give the necessary hints. 

First Lesson. 


§1. The Malayalam alphabet consists of 54 Idlers, 18 of which 
are vowels. 




= 4 


a in Aft. 





a , Ah! 



= ( 


i „ It 




» r Field. 



= a 


o , BulL 





a , Ends 



= e 


e » Pen. 


= • 


ike tai ic round lengthened. 





0 6 ting fret element of diphtkng 

ow in low. 





the rame round lengthe tud. 




ei in Height. 


— so 

cu , South. 




•emMa'af lit* row in Grew. 




Me same round lengliencJ. 




eomething like luo in Clae. 



Me some round lengthened. 





um vi Fokrin. 



= ah 


*h aspirated and ending abruptly.) 

§ 2. The following are ihc 36 

i. Gutturals. 

1- A-k4, has a sound intermediate between the “g" in “gash” and 
“k” in cash. 

Bemark: Kumpwai gMarill; pnieco:. til* round ti» linri II Is nit lb. Tanil 
“*»•’ In “tsflsm'', etc. 

2. OJ-kha, like IU "ch” in “choral”. 

8. </)”£». liko the “g” in “ gospel The toond muU bo prodcoed 
from behind the throat 

4. “31 = gha, the same as a boro, bat aspirated. 

5. 03 = ha, a* “ng” in “singing '. 


ii. Palatals. 

6. aJ-4a, like «ch" in "child". 

7. aO = dla, more forcible than the above and aspirated. 

8. £3 - ja, like "g" Is "genUeaian ", "Garmon”. The scnnd produced 
from behind the throat. 

9. (hll) = jho, the some aspirated. 

10. aat-M, like "gnu" in "cognac". 

iii. Cerebrals. 

11. S = U. These cerebrals, unknown in European language, are pro- 
nounced by curling back the tongue and striking its under part against the 
roof of the mouth. 

12. 0-lhB. thii same uprated. 

IS. CUJ- da, like s, only softer | , , ,, 

14. CUD ** dha, the nnn oipiruted | produced from behind the throat. 

1 5. sm m ns, like m, but the tip at the tongue is put behind the front 
teeth of the upper jaw. A nasal sound. 

ir. Dentals. 

16. !3>-U, like “d” in “day” or "d” in the German "dice, das” etc. 

17. LC-tha, the a»ne aspirated. 

18. 3 « da, •omething liko “d” in “doTo". Make tho tip of the tongue 
slightly teach tho front teeth of the upper jaw and produce the sound from 
behind the throat 

19. OJ = dhi, tho mrao uepiratod. 

20. m-na, the usual "n" aa In "noun”. 

Bomark: BMta tha =.u.l “o«" .her., lhlalMMcbti >D«Ur prManolaUoa 
•afjeiallj la tht <f. «orda abas ltd laogoi imoCoi the edge of the unit. 

r. Labials. 

21. aJ — p», as in "bear". The earns holds true, what has been said 
about "ka". 

22. = pba, tho name aspirated. 

28. OTJ-ba, like "b” in "bow”, "brave". The lips are but slightly 
to bo brought together, tho sound produced from bobind tho throat. 

24. d — bha, the same aspirate!. 

25. a-ma, the "m” in "month", '‘mouth". 



26. CO ail, palatal ‘*sh'\ 

27. rfo - aha, a "sh" as full as poesible as "sh” in ‘‘50^’'. Tho tongue 


is carriei hack and tfao sound most come out through the teeth, hissing and 
hollow. Scae Englishmen prouoonea "ah" in the word "shall” or -shepherd” 
La this manner. 

28 . 0 \)~ as, the usual *■*" in >' 80 ". 

29. oO-ha, a strong “b" as in ‘ harangue". 

vii. Semi-zwcds- 

80 . co> = ya, like the “y" in "beyond” and like the Qerman "J" in 

81 . (O-rt, a very aoft r, that hardly can be described- Pronouncing 
this Utter the tongue should slightly vibrate behind tbo front Moth, the mouth 
being opened but a little. 

32. O- ra.thc usual r, but pronounced more forcibly, liko“r” in "rough" 
or the “r" in the German word "masala". 

83. £J-la, like “1” in "length’’. 

34. OJ - vt, almost like "v", in "liver", or simply the German »w" In 

35. ft — la, the "1” whiah meat English people pronounce in -shall'’ or 
“pull". The tip of the tongue must be carried back not to the roof of the 
mouth as in “a" etc-, hut extended, as in », to the binder port of the mouth. 

36. t* = U, a kind of “r”. In pronouncing this letter the longue will bo 
la the same ion a. with the preoeding letter without touching the palate. 

Notes on the Alphabet. 

§ 3. There are two kinds of alphabets in use. One is the old Tamil 
or M&ppLUa alphabet, still employed by the Mnppijjas (called 
vatteluttn), one kind of this (called koleluita) is used in 

keeping the records in Rajas' houses. The other one is tlie modem 
Maloyalam alphabet (Ary a «|utto), which was used to write Sanskrit 
only, but is now in general use.* From the old Tamil alphabet ar6 
taken the letters o, * and a (r, 1 and 1). Thus 6 of the rowels (g, g, 
«», «o. (Bo, «oi) and 19 of the consonants ( 41 , w, am, .an, c, ran, o, on, aa, 
to, Q, to, oc, mj, ■, it, 40, or, co) have Sanskrit origin. The Malayalam 
language having absorbed a great number of Sanskrit words, those 
letters and sounds have become absolutely necessary. The two long 
vowels B (j) and «o (]i) occur only in pure Sanskrit. 

• It »b» lgttoSurod by Tunjtitu RlulttfaJhan <uit mb— from tin oo-raUeC Or»tt>» 
(7k:nU-&u»l<n< oharMlor). BJatUihihaB Ural la tho ITtb etotury M the I'annSnt 
r»lU Ml soitttMMd to rooter tbo olilrf Somkrll pc*ao Into 



§4. The shot! «<no" is written ouly at the beginning of a word. 
In absence of another voxel » short "a" is to be understood at tire 
end of every consonant. 

§ 5. There are further some final tellers, which are used to indicate 
that a final consonant must be pronounced without adding the short 
iro. mentioned in §4. So the dental "<n” at the close of syllables is 
changed into ..o&" and we road not “m" (na), but only ”i*” (o). 

Another final consonant it (n) instead of -tm" (nil). For 

examples (see § 12, exercises I and 3). 

Thus li lnWM.1 of a (r -ml ul r»). 

6o . . a 0 . . to) 

o4 . - u <1 . . la). 

Hence the final (half) consonants are the following: 
o6, sni, .6, d, do, [z wriUen o) 

Exercise 1. 

m«n (o»ol rflWwi «n* <»r»| Mlfi *ii (lull I taid i iu*i (p»l») m»nj; aim (Mia) 
ml; Mi (lull) nauMaii. 

Exercise 2. 

ceainb (aimi) Let, (La: ftiitaa; fjurb <***) this penut ; t&rb (Do) ilc*:; 
earth* toil; (arori tb tj % ccose fcniaij &qj* (War), thwo ptnena; 

(roapiO) (kntjitj ?«; aflefe <M> roan ; fttaxfe (aral) aho ; «*t*> ^mar*») 

in*; <|*a»Mi) moMj . Afterm deal* 

Rom*?* 1. If «**, «»*. rack «toM a *or>i, lb« fclUr i« alurrad 

ore? Ilka “a" In “orialnal" ($ 10). 

Remark 2. •*»" la ibi ailiLUa a w*ri ibadrl I* jroncn**.! nitwit Ilka “ac" 
<•« * l»». 

Second Lesson. 

Compound LetterB. 

a. Cvr/sonants combined with Fowefa. 

§6. Tlie ordiuary characters of the rowel*, described under §1. 
(except ora and which are never used in pure Malaynlam), can be 
employed only at the beginning of words. They are called Initials 
(tee § 5, exercise). 

§7. Vowels joined with consonants and being not initials assume 
another shape, but their pronunciation is not thereby altered. This 
new form of the vowel may be called its Secondary form. 


§ 8. The secondary form of the 4 initial vowels ©d. mz 

is placed on the right side of the consonant. These new forms are:— 
“a” for <m^, as: eo, *> ©, «*-. <ca. i«, is, cf; <*'V I for as: oil, 

ol (kh», fki, thv); for as: ofl, *fl, orf) <*i, ji, 4»>; u «* > for <m>i ? as: 
S», si, dai fflfth, that, ikahj. 

§ 9. The secondary form of .-yj), and is placed on the left 
of the consonant to which it belongs. So 

for as: oa, mi, na i««, *bi, 1 *): oo" for o^J, as: *aj, env, 
a*o Ipi, •*, hf); «aa M for SioQ). as: (a rm* irw), QQ 0 > (onrirwoy, 

earn {cfl, gbc«> ito], mol, nal). 

§ 10. The initial voxvels i&, ao, aohave their secondary forms placed 
on the right and left of their respective consonants: a changes into 
3 n 5 as: *<ue, <po , tok ao into ;<a— o”, as: tmo. *:/* (n8,g5)t qtj into 
— g" t as: «no, cm (nau, mu). There is tendency to drop the ue** and 
write K®)* 1 only a3 q_i*> for ®o_y3. 

§11. The Sanskrit meets g and g subscribe their secondary form : 

«•*’*>* < k r* kb f> ; V S uh * > ‘ 

B*mark : Compound iMUrt with ‘«q” irt sot s<&*m at All 1 b v*r<li Jdopiid frow 
Sanskrit; tho compound* of * k g M newr tcarody in )UUy*Ua, 

§ 12. The secondary forms of & and gg cause some difficulty, 
each of vowels having 3 secondary forms, which cannot be used 
for each other. 

a, «g” changes into 3 in connexion with “a" and only; as: a, 

<m <ln v ru). 

*£> IJ becomes ^ in compounds with <n, ao, «, o, b, to and «*>, «: jp, 

fin Bi Si u». no ‘«“i **“* ^*“i *»i *»•)- 

«g w changes into o, joined to and cr\ as: era, «*, tu) or sub- 
scribed to oi, », ca and the rest, as: a* « . a*, *, oj. etc. 

6. g*- £.ag,*(M,iA v ©r* (a, 

joined to «m, m, as: o&, (*%, «i) or subscribed to «, ® and the rest, 

as: o± ««. 

Exercise 3. 

«•* ns 1 ®!*, nj*t) 1 . 
♦ »«* (k&l) foot. 

on** (fil) tall. 

9ttA> (tor) o*r. 

u* <pll> »Uk. 

Aioa » (tig**) w ilk. 
OisOi irili ftvari. 

avxfe (ftiU( day. 


6 - 


®?f» (i£i ibuider. 

AoH (oUj *:und. 

otf («dl*> ru« <p*it tew«)- 

<rf| (v) tbw. 

<nSn) tab. 

*fk* (tin) foal. 


(fcr*| ttrtit. 

noy (not*) w*x- 

(fcti) Huvi. 

a*r* (tea) beaey 

(tft[) ftCGT|HOH. 

<adr) tntb. 

vrb (ohi9> apa»». 


«*■» (UI) Me g >. [1 WH 

«2*»1 (bhiklu) 1*0*0 W. 

aaim* <veoftiii i( U dftiral. 

OQJCO* (vifAB) fpeoi 

oi*» (tbJIi way. 

tu:o* mile U *aa!od 

(i*n) ip»Ui 


<po^i •> dun, (uvdor. 

i lodi •> giaeOlic**. 

Jtxo* (toll •«*. 

*»»* *»• 

«<w* <p6r> war. 


(kjpM (rate 

<kj nlj vora. 

g,«fl tkfinil oiOouliura 

*\j* { per) mow. 

1Qj6 |Wr> ro>«. 

e«D •lng». a*gf. 

• 6* Ikii.i uninlln 


d'TO (fc&ru) boll: food. 

jtmfl <laai) cloth. 

£<» (guru) t*4€h«f. 

O'BQ (‘'"i 

*)f (V*lu) «*t«. 

BTJQ Ah aa.-ono (l| 0*01 tlx flilioi. 


(i«ml) *mU. 

0 %J. (ra|-tn| form. 

qoT, ikO.I) litre. 

S®* (ion) pillar. 

*19 (M4«‘l Wot. 

cg<* <*BI) tlrtW. joi». 


*>tl (plcrc^h). +"* (kkeew), (OX), ftftl (pl*7)i «*** <w*» *. on), ^ «** lOJ 

cty> ( ( 1 ) w»«t an t«to#U*l, Qiroc (ckiTJi), fkr* (ikkpNiK goH (neswi^rj, oaaato 

<r*s4 *>ag» ilcivAM, God)* <xjm) (fe^or), 

ciaiojl |.u), •ai»r, (ra»|, a*ttx *a*n-» |I 

wont rise). (vorw), **<-*• (Wad), qs»f* (boro), <tak). 

IdAr’tC cnco for all: All th«M word* tad thcao flm iootoioee are to he read, vrlttoa, 

and Icurut by lean* 

<j 13. The surda <m, aj, s, m, o_i have their proper pronunciation 
only, if they stand at the beginning: of a word or if they are doubled; 
if they stand in the middle of a word, they almost sound like their cor- 
responding sonants. (See the foregoing examples with an asterisk.) 

Third Lesson. 

b. Consonants with Consonants. 

§ 14. Also the consonants a> (ya), o (rt) u (U), o« (VI) and » (ra) in 
connexion with auother consonant alter their shape. 

1. cn becomes to bo subscribed to the consonant before it; such 
a vowel is to be considered as belonging to the compound consonants. 

JUiofore »+ ® — oi-- fta-g; j + tujsns 

MeUmpUiMn; to. rl|kl, 

2 . n = ' w , ns: »-ro=©; o4-o-.e>; <u«-n+ Sjya. (prill) 
fmJDen tgO* (Vtlja) dfo! ; t ig» (®Ut»t*) onlj. 

S. cj-^ subscribed to tun preceding consonant; as: *.+*) = $; 

»+ kim B, «+ 04-r «u= 00 ; <k!bi*ni) lain, d»irM». 

4. a — j joined to the consonant before; as: t*+o)~ t»j;a + m — ej; 

rro + Oj + ft o = cmmvj; lir&mnt btttth; ojxt {t»#kk) ikl*. 

5. o = ‘ to be put on the following consonant, a*: .*4- ©«=©»; <b*fa 
•*G; (Turtbut) 7**rJ rail. 

Remark : For further iafor»tion Ii»:k M i*« uMp of cc^mdrici. 

§16. Tn combining the nasals with ccwonants bwr in mind the 
following compositions: 

1. The final ©+ <a» or crb + A^ekrtga);©*. *«• + 

fai); -f o.® ica» (a jttm t tkinj). 

2. Z+QJ or ntn+Qj or ni-t-oj=j>aj (uja); ox. es. <ir*»> + *ikTI 

(jauf«) eaea nil (nmUp; ru -6 ( — ojoflaf l*rg«) + aj'o (turl.n] = iiioif-j. 

3. sM-s-am (nda); amio iw). 

4. rrf>- m or o t-<m = aiD (nda); a>oo -r j«.>r,c - («• aft- 
it imikm nr Xisj-ni). 

B. o + oj = <nj (mba); ex. «otj (m«ka.. Some other compositions, 
as : oco (be*'. *»(«**■ - bj.i, rrui <tm-T- QD = aOla i, IS (iO + o a ndi), li )a- (di*), 
tou <nb-) may bo easily understood. 

§ 16. In combining the remaining consonants with each other, ihe 
second one is either joined to or written underneath the preceding 
consonant. <* and m or “kU" we wi\ta *»; *+* = «, which letter 


is often counted as a special letter. <u and m=<M; t«kti> ro"tr ; 
apr-i (n(B>n) Jiwal, t«m. 

§ 17. In doubling the eoi tstmanll the samo consonant is simply join- 
ed to the first one or subscribed to it- *>•-!-•=«•. «*’>'“• Wnlkko, md.- 
T«alklu) lo m«; co-r 1/1=35, ®*cfi e (*Ugg»«l "»r. tflUxIooj ra + ^=an (in*); 
jitoai (cftiitU) (Ui ; « + *i= «. *->* (!«««•> groin ; a* *r =3 = «o^(* (•«!»») 

full or i W + M — Bfe. aitfe (Infill ihim.; «• + «» = «©, (Uoil) rlio- 

grxol; » + «= 3 , a. s “l (kuiil) .hil*; «n+*m = pp, »1J(5 (ctM> o!lj b+«=o», 

•ml (knlll) k&ifa-, o — a a, -noiflo* lilirdCtttm) -omit; <n + <n = mi, oxro (num) 
“m«; 4-IU — 5J, coy. (ippin) brad; «i+«m = «u. («bt*> oh falherj 

c + c = «a, <ro.n |uu) moOor; «n-k® = gj, *19. (Uryjam) Ibln*; ft), 

rr^j (aiiU) fcod, taiocITul; Oj*$- o;rr^j. |im») M»n, e<o. 

In doubling the sharp aspirated letters (eu, 00 , o, in, an) their 
corresponding unaspirated letter is written in front or above or 
sometimes below the other one, as: =a* =o = ^, no^rb '•ihorj id + io= «e, 
1/Doc bill vitriol. 

Sonic remarks on pronunciation. 

§ 18. The short im contained in co, r, no, «, ®. n in the first 
syllable of a word as well as the « in the final syllablo «»c*- •»»> 
(see §5, first remark) is not always a full *•«»" but often something 
like For lutnao* ^ It to be piiaooacod like itt Sngllik la “ reierood ", 

“rattiaW" «to., Ik* final *n«l !ifco "•I" in "i*»*olal“, a«r> (minim) gtn, «£=*■* 

i(i|fn ilioplmd. biq anlaal. Till* may ba cillirf a "half a”. 

§19. There iB a half voutl “a” at the end of many words, which 
is the shortest among all sounds, so that many people in writing 
Malayalam drop it altogether. People in the south of Malabar do 
pronounce it even like "bo" inherent in every consonant. As the vowel 
“o" i* too much and the inherent docs not indicate the sound at 
all. in all the books printed at Mangalore the sign ” is used to point out 
this half vowel: *gjf (tent) -jo; no (id!) 11 , ibm iking, no. In books 
published in the south, spcciully in Travancore, the sign " is put above 
the final letter having the vowel a added to it. Ex. The reason 

given is that tho final rowel is only half pronounced, and that, therefore, 
the vowel should be expressly written bofore tho 6:gn i* put above it. 

§20. With reference to the wuvt na^)" bear in mind, that it is 
often exchanged for the initial rowel -a". Hence you can say os or 
•os (place). Besides this •>*" is very often pronounced at the 
beginning of a word like So a&ttfOj (wbanfy i« pnomm* 010 

agjittoj ^aTWs (•«■*•> oaoTiie (»ki»*) 


$21. In colloquial language ug" in the lirst syllable of a word 
in general, in pronounced like **- so instead of (smoke), 

Mi' instead of (umbrella). In the same manner also in the 
first syllable of a word is pronounced like ‘<®'. For is*M«o» oTisel' (Uui) 
pinMonrel a aisaa', aika«» (*»®p) so>|«*i .to. 

§ 22. With regard to the consonants it is a matter of imi»ortanco 
to pronounce doubled consonants much stronger than we do in European 
languages. Neither English people nor Germans are accustomed to be 
•cry carefal in this regard, but the neglect of this rule will cause in 
Malayalam many misunderstandings: /. i. hwr, Wi cpmni) 
■ulna; as'. I'kxUl) hraii agt (kniii) elilM, mi. 

§23- In Sanskrit i cords «n or a of compound letters must be 
pronounced like final *> <•*>. So: am>e< («o*yi, not as in Sanskrit, 
but B.lumm; jar a*, not udfcV.ran, but albn.i.m <*rlrl*) ; •uoeiaj, not 
llmiro, but Ulain. 

§2t. The half-consonant ' is not only used as the final letter of 
in (called rich am), but Also in composition instead of o (ra) at the 
end of a syllable: •axj + aj'^e.-sajdT** <«r*r.t«). 

§ 25. The letter n (ra) has a threefold pronunciation. 

a) The nsual pronunciation pointed out (§ 2, 32), so in qj n 

(pir.) Wi. 

b) The double o-no (ft) not pronounced as a "ra", but as the 
English ><t” in -it’’ or “tt” in “utter”. 

Pronouncing this 9lh Malayalam “t” the tongue must but slightly 
touch tire top row of the teeth; ex. ai<v» u. if two .# 00 . <*cr.i.) 

ill*. Ismill. 

c) o, combined with the final nasal ab«.<Ar>, sounds not “nri 1 ' but 
“hd* r , like «nd n in “binder”; cx. a<W>o m:nr*) thin*, pf tu* 

§ 26. As m> (s) is a foreign letter* uneducated people in Mala- 
bar geuerally replace it by So your handyman may ask for a 

instead of (mpSIbj. In tiie same manner Q), somewhat 
difficult to be pronounced, is replaced by f.e. instead of c* 
tin, people will say Also .*> or <a rs used for <n>, if it is 

not even dropped altc^ether. So <In 4) is in general use instead 
Of <nfkn*. 

.Viii-kr^AM rcuit wiphittfally to firnd »g»tnit c<r®r-*r«Minj: sod MWiatl- 
inp MftUjaliB nylUbUi 11 Ibm U op a^ol U DratidU* Ia**.!**#. 




> <kr*n»fi) a rd#r. 


«£:#•> <il>gam) 
tT\3 jaio^ <iv alibi *aui) tamper. 
rnlUX^o (nlrbfttrrr.m) mltfortute. 
«<> that *on. 

*{W <hrfya) deed- 
G*}9 (d Wynn) j«rof«rty. 

(iiiiian) «a«far 
(artmi) owner, lord, 
(uttru) romy. 
m ‘bi> daughter. 

• *gbt, duel. 

crcaiTl t»anji> haf, ftru. 
a>w* (va»dn) beetle- 

•*»-* (rapdu) two. 

ruo^j (pirantoi compound. 

ftanrtfJo (iBagiUlaa) parlulof 40 day* 
®ain <!mbam) p miie 

nv»>S* (*arfadn*»> diflitalij. *rle?. 
rrc«»j>fc'l \ianjltf) wanderer- 
9 OJ 0 U <r*gda) n**d niit, at oil M. 
lAirml <4&nli> Miutice, cure. 

«^<cT< (feianffl) beauty, 
mart (nandil f raiitudiL 
a.Wl <vao«li) otri, bandy. 

QiM/U cx&£\ aaurre quickly a bandy la wanted. 
»o ajcrrfl io.<m ibis toady (li don’t want. 

eat» (entu or Tests) wh»l? 

00 tic (arddhani) holf 
o»c^< <*abdaiui sound. 

Q'fi dn thi*. 
fi*Qjnt be did. 

(aaibi gentleman. 

ftaahtaisi trouble 
oo£ (Mien) humility- 
cujjofljo (av*daudrra»| utorfty, 

OJfrjc (nil ran> wtW. 

mc^e far (Lira) tteinia$, 

flV (avaptvan,) drwsm. 

<*•*!*) *• **■ *«" 

Oai'JJ (6eydo> did 

«ttOT6 £g flo!^ ha did this . 

<rfkOM»» (orica yan) surely 
cro jrr\jOo» (imibai*) tales™. 

AQgO (aianiri) minister, count 1 Jar. 
twQja tiietram) stleaoe* preoept. 

Bctnark : rroj (art maker!) k tobe prooaantwd alrrat Ilka ocrojo aro % or ft<ro: (aa) 

a±j («rpoJ »«!*. 

edt mfe i a gcoi child. 

m w (malU) f «d, odj. 

“ 84 ° (»PP*“) 


•Qumo <x> wa*t 
vjrfiau (oolkku) to s*. 
totem* (▼*U«n) nMr. 

(rnffta) Uatoo. 
Oiftftaa (TElikko; to dr at, to poll. 
(Ui#t) hetf 

ow (U3A) i*t. 

#*)^o ooj«m# x vast l mi. 
«yftV0» fio_/2&o oo-^m* Z Tail «iUr. 

(fZMhtkkai) to toa. 
rtX)^* <ur;«a} tooka. 

MOillft (afiJai UMi 

jjuTia* Aft ao^^wm btro U a oobra. 

o® tdaya) Ll*ii*4a. ®:«mW (tiplkka) >W. 

003 AHT<W ahow that. AtffrfW abow that to no. 

«t»a *«nfii*oni {«a>r»> dw't ihow thnt. 

(rokun) Mori. *•«**» I •« 

ct>Qjl®a arotr* ^ooc ®:cr»(r» tJurt I m* bleed 

<k*kitrm») tanpl*. 
Xtav^e frfUaly**) fn&2n#M. 
&rO*0» (uU&hAW) dlll**SO«. 
(vartka) to con*, wae. 

rfl **<rD<Toaxc* met ttou? 

300 (alkhriam) woodar. 

*«na muit *boo, pleiM tUw. 

. 10 *0, ** 

««oo (uefu> mtateka. 

•0WX*o (aranda) cf hltt, Ufa. 

Miter* **« tk4 (M) tty child. 

*r> a frOoeto *otT. that U thy kalfo 

a* son* Uro. 

Iflia <mtia) tab 4. 

ft*:tma©b»iaf (kltbar). [ktlfa. 
•QOr^o ao»' o®3«njoj5 brvrj tty 

BfX* otkor. flftonja toolbar. 

fycftda) Biro, of im. 

■WUvfcn of It, 14. 

*•«:$ bllkar. 

Q>? eomo (abort form of ostf #)t 
tote€\&Hm to olaat. 

soj ft eloxs tbla tablo. 

lajjA taka (tbaca). 

•aft* (' 4 okka) tako away' 

May! (toppt) hot, *ap. (cbalr , ktc#< 
tic ♦Bfroti «*1CR>9 totesm yat tbla 
(poiUkat*) kook. 

Ockjca) pat. (trla* »y bat. 

Hpftfto «oj<oa n«i>r|Qji qalikly 

***** tak# tky book. 

to ault, 111. 

- 12 - 

Table of Combined 

(3Y() (3Y§) f D Spy J) 





5Yd oV^i 



















































a s 













<nul nvul 



































































































- 13 - 


teUh vowels. L 




(SVDo (3TOS 



















































































































































I. (amliniud-) 


$pq g>_ 


































































Q 2 























































I. (continued.) 

61a^) Q 






061 OJ 












0.0 f 








6QJ 1 































61 6J 










061 QJ 








61 61 CO 


a co 3 











0*1 2 



























<2G & 3 





«o oo 



*** 2*o 

6)0? OO 


























Sil J 































































n mi 










tclfh Consonants. 



Ctt 1 




(< 3 ) 



























«a/M i 

b) o>»t» 








































1 ffl 











& 2 


8 2 

o; 4g| 








°S J 




i- It 8- # tfi- 88- ffi- g- 


Fourty Lesson. 

How to ask. 

1. Wj)(ro> aifcdJvfm (in short e*****"") (idn eudlkunnu). 

iMereUi t Tbl« whnt I. (mittm liir. iHfc.n? — ii or »r*) 

2. ^ amatol a^Oivicio QJOlo (Mnnishi epp5) varum)? 'When "ill »h« 
Mu=»hl oome? 

LU. M.mlii aim Kill ooaoP 

3iiOo Future of ojalft to «sie. O-iBTn I >om» <n*6 = I); B»ir6 a co I one; 

I tk.ll own. = t 

3. exboxrri aifmsi (Brina winadu)? Who it come? <«®. aco.i 

4. .-nW»Ao OaJ.t> o(J)OW {nind'e per yosda)? What is th» name? 

IJI. Tit amt .1.11 

nfwcio Oentllw of nfl She*. 

§27. The Gcoitivo of the Personal I’ronoua (of lliee critonbo) is 
used instead of the Posstsslve Proumn ‘thy". 

§28. Ex. 1. and 4. show that tiio Auxiliary Verb *130.10 (to l/e) is 
often shortened and wade 09 art and even 0.3. e.g., 

«a™>. But it must be remembered that tbe last form is rather slang. 

§20. The Interrogative Pronoun is generally placed before the 

Exkhcbe 1. 

Commit the following word* to memory : I. nume; J. ai®e> <ajraco, a. 
ire, ojOo) toeono; 3 aiaa »h»«; 4. "«ieoj J. WflO »koj «. n»» I; 

T. srfllhw; S. eg ("‘log). 


Translate the iollowicg sentences ; 

t. When wilt ihmi eoiso? 


5. Whet did shi. mdo'' 
s«ccr oxFa«e» B * 
*. Who (omei? 
jaai&rc vSo 

I When did I oone? 

ioox iitfStJ" rp-.<j> 
a. WVm wilt ikou expo ? 
,onm viFBet” ;ju 

5. ojl^ aJpilOQ (7i<}a cv^c)? Whew i* the hcaae? 

LU. Howi vhcref 
a?tf Icomj; wbfrg. 

6. Altai n6 a^) OildS ojixO'oo (mi evi^o pfrkkum)? Whore will he 
liw® (dwell) J 

La. Bo whore will lira? 

•wa.* l*| a_o?oa> fojieicro Present, uuta P*»! Teaai, ojtdtcFuUre) lo dwell, ll<o. 

- 19 - 

7 .4. (nifi&al Uu ei nine ^yjam)? 

How wul you do this? 

Lit. Tou lb i* knv will dr» 

rr%98(>> •jo^JrYi how, will do fpnucat rente; JIAI. fat. 

7 B. o^yrnW *3*&d fcwsa n»d*o? (Wbo win giro mo a mango?). 

Lit . To Rid who 4 nnngn will * Irtf 
«*** mdoco; on, c*^xo; fit*, g*'» t iU11 fit*. 

§30. In Malaynlam (as in German) not everybody is addressed 
with the Pronoun ml«o& you. Grown up people and superiors are to 
be addressed with “criMA", children and inferiors (and ns such is 
also considered the wife in comparison r/itb her husband)— in prayer 
also God — by rfl <t*xu. 

§ 31. The Present Tense terminates in &m> (o^n*. a .uteres}* 

in forming the Fnlurc Tense ft** is changed into a* <**•, oj«r, 

§32. Ex. 7 B. shows the InfafintU Article in Malayalnio. is 
originally the number “one” (*>? ex. 8). It is used like the English 
Indefinite Article: **■ a name, etc. But the use of the indefinite 
article is uot so common in Malayalam as in European languages. 

EXERCUft 1. 

*. oft* bouio; 10. oj?io) d*»11; U. (QAiqyn, 

Oa>3,, «.«^>) t» do; {000}; 12. c^OjVjta wfaero; II. «a«B)fcn bo w; 14. PC 0^6 
J»; 15. ttfltfo* jou. 

Kxxrcxse 2. 

|. Whir do 3*9 4o? 

dwAl+O 5TC» <^u) tt>i«rui 
2. Row did you won ? 


5. Win did liod* ibw? 

4. When* will lltc* 


y WU iuit <t» rhi»> 

<*-2*9 Ttv* 

i How f>*ll I do tkNF 

dH ( v'.tf, 

Ex&hcm 3. 

P^nrntl PKIUOVV4. 

mxb I; ewntfc tto; ofi tbw; friW) job; 010*6 b«; «*ajO lb*j. 

$• Q®@ ffiojlcs o-JOdba* (atra il ivide ptrklnnau)? How many 
pooplo Hvo here? acn l = odo pc rtoci. 

Ul Huw u.k oy torsos bero ll»o* 

bow mob. bow m»njf 

9. rnlimvio oQ)(«oicro oicra (siaoi) eadinna vanso)? Why did you corn*? 

Lit. You «ky M*ar 



Wf mar alio mtao* ^-nTnr.waD ainn* or •a'ncat'l axmt or -A>u» 

<«■ *ca-.«£, OMlviir l— jlOJ.) mmiajl »6»l /«; .g.inKni l» ih* 
latlia sf -«o wfcu <p»rpaM>’. 

10. a^ntnu-nys^ m«ni’ arjQ&bo (awiadsiy) oqj^ots 

(*adiciyi randa ilagal ido ceyyonau)? Why are Iso person* doing this? 

Ul Wby lw*> porioD* till* do? 

tv®; cn>^A»t>) u &iu< Plural at nad i; i^raOnMn wby. 

§ 33. In collo^uiai language lie F»*r6 is employed without personal 
affixes; Personal Pronouns before the Verb in its Present, Pastor Future 
Tenses, imitate the personal relations. A3 to poetry sec § 254. 

§34. and (ex. 9) show that a in &r+ and 

other Sumer*]* before a rowel is usually omitted, /. e . (*» fi*l) 

a thunder, am>&jT «o^> a sound, a slap, a step. 

§35. •tt.'Ttfi™ (what for?) shows that the Dalit* in Malayalam 
expresses also “Purpose” or “Intention” and is employed where in 
English the Preposition “for” is used (see ex. 30). 

Exercise 1. 

1C. er*o> (pints a&taxfe) i>ir*>a; It. bow »uah f bov arnuy; IS. 
w B®r*4VrK>»l why; I*, fioite 20 - two; tl. 

a («t. Sj, <X19 (ox. 9). 

1. How rainy j-iplo ttMt* 

aw* 5 

2. Why do fn\J p«joi hr# boro? 

ja>t/ *J9**cjUr>D* 

». H*w moiij prw. 4 id tl.l«? 

eat **06* cvm 

4. Wla did tbo two porwm to®* boro? 

*«ixo *IJU(B 

0. Why did (M two p*r»««H oro* brnj? 

aei^o® (5 icuu\ol®* wfCw f p»> 

Exercise 2. 

(Co.vJufviKou is r Orf fo**) 


ajcetOD — axx&ai nxiort. 

ftfl iu»i<rw— 1-rtfWTW. 

«OOj*<i OJ>0*(T» CttOJ* a rw*TW. 

6. e. 

"« 0I3OHB I in. ttt't aia» I cum.. 

<rfl BSon ilia. art. <rfl ojno Him oanal. 


*n<isb m h* 

OKSBCfe CROKTO yet w. 

rrvoscb yw <u*. 

ftd^ 090 cro tbty om. 

(gttoj'ti a*TO k MU4. 

a. CD *? nine. 

Oi«TO jou ca«*». 

ircajfc x-rro they c*a* 

Fifth Lesson. 

Question* (amiimied). 

11. cfhcA TOcgo.oatei 0 (tli uyyiif&yd)? Is dinner ready? 

rfirt dJns^r; o^>nj»3>3f aga^A -f <r*5aTl4- 00; 1*3126 roidy; a&&) *9 n p*rtH 
dpi* f«rr » 4 e* cv*a 2 uh <to **5) bf«x; ni to lt» fora it *« *dentir^»t <*rtb thn Pmi 7 «n«« of 
tW Verb. cm tndloita* 1 3 u> quauioo. 

Remark: Th© wc-rd flftr* ii not i«d amos* to denote tbUr wml. It * 

A^ifnbli In fool U\«a by EnrDpntaft At 4 dirUin 1 ninth. Tim tutif* «»#al U 1<CTO. 

12. iuscu (mc^DooOaiD (cRj& tayylrfcyo)? la leu ready? 

Ai'./U t«*. 

13. rnl^raio qj!^)o 6 cuodwroaao (nioBul vittil poguaanvd)? Ito 
you go home (into the h<ws®)? 

aTkpnA (fnut ofl^) tuum •{* tb* bc«fe>*; Pmaot Tccit of fojioo (to 

go). Foil Tew OajKxft, fnt«je?ta»e 5 xj>^ ; ai Joined by tbo «ox»w«ot Oj b> tb* fiutl 
a <* («r« $ 3$). 

14. fooiyi ©A0«nto»maaai3 (iiacii kondn nnmvi)? D>) jou bring 
toe meai'f 

BJOjP mail; inablaiag III. Partfclpbi cs'.BS -till ihli Tofb qjo* w 0 gel lb. 
M^.TOlam for ‘ 1 . bfisg*. Ss tfewmQKTnsa* (lid joi Iriogl? It Ibe InUrioj.lit. Fccn 
rf tb.P«M Tew. 

§ 36. Ia asking for an affirmation or for a denial *j is affixed 
to the word io question. ofl muitwra (thou gocst) becomes efl t^nnm 
oqj (doest Ihou go)? In German ami in same cases also in English 
this kind of question is expressed by a different position of the words 
or only by an interrogative intonation. In English generally {of. ex. 13. 
14) the Verb “do" is employed. 

*i is affixed to the Present Tense n<r» or Ihe Past Ten* <r* (mi or ») 
by inserting the consonant, tu between c and e; ex. 1 1 and 12 show that 
n (in eg<nl) is changed into «- 

In questions for an affirmation the Interrogative Verb is the last 
word of tbe sentence. 

Bui ml " is Garro.n, ‘Ming - la Exglah; *» § 11$. 


§ 57 . anjcol is the Past Tense of but in tho P*st Tense its 

meaning = “became " «wi* *a<a'i meuns I became. The Future Tense 
shall bo (see § 31 ). 

««>:■•£ iijsi 1 >*«»• 
rrfl on®' than bMatmt. 
•esjl* I- b(.an». 

COX Qlfe vu iMCOJDCi. 


aval 1 hfOMW. 
Remark : *1 v*»* U tniuUt*4 ly 

ro>-6 I ihall 

rrfl ^&o tbcu shaU b*. 
€©oj*t> b« shall b*. 

co%e»tfj *h*H io. 

m’odi job shall l*s. 

«exfc arjftp thiy shall ba. 
sib ■aaftoira (mo J 99). 

1. <sTW> dl»Mr; 8. aiitt tsaj fl. ■“* 

to be; 0. lo goj 7. osrorfQj^a to bring. 

or^‘A> r«*4y; S. *Q4 

I D(«l you bring tha Mi! 

8 . Do you »ta* m boras F 

4 g*mm*r* 

itLSOL^O V«0" 

3 Do you Jo an? 

*WT3D»>tEf^o Sa^ioju) 

4 . Did you coma? 

4xtu« Urvtwyv vwyA) 

F.XERC 1 HK 2 . 
I 5 . Did 

irlng water F 
i tx> wore fro** 
4 Whm will yo* bria$ tho »-4?! 

4°«Mt>lk09+* l!*o» 

1. Did b* *of 

custervft o.<rai 
Do two parted* 4 wall In tho koaiaf 

jenjecsui^sr^ cptfuiu ^i?jro 

mi) a\_oarr» — 
afl aaj>a<ra — »xj>A(TMtxcf 

«D AJ“fc 7 oj : aro — **j»Aa»»a»! 
Au< 7do*«. 

<rfl o^jjaj'i — ir^itau- f 

mxw* Oojumo jruwArroaajsF 

(Y.'i £U>, a^i intro — axis^m^oxf 

ai* frxj>a<r» — *a_ii«acx*Cni? 
Future Tnui. 

#>rb fcwiO* — «aj»add)f 

ffftOK* *rui<a\ — fejtfOMf oH. aaojnb a<v_oa*» — ott. 

1 5. colartio ©d qjI^c 6 ©gj (ni&Te acchae I 

flttil pirkkunnuva f ill*} IXx*s iby lather live in (such a) this houao r IIo doca not 
fathar; ©c thU; »nt. 

1 «. rnaqos areas fov cu^ob easrno? eej, areas, (meio^g 3 ail 
flfiMM OaJDfol (nammade amnia i vittil un<JS? ill*, amma talaSSeiiyflekkn 
pdyi) I* our mother iu this house? No, she went (bos gone) to Tollicherry. 


maffo s outgau offr-so; cn»dn* inolmlo the twr*en wl*»n *» addf*«i »Bsm»tlrr; 
a «0 ii pratrat; aaal^gifl Tfilloborr*; (U»e aT*>ai w»w *in 

TtUleierrj" aM ofcl^n'IsIlM into T.lkclu-rj at lo ToUUhcrrj (•*. } IO«), But 
Oartglflafl* it vary often uwd Ur o*itjgiV35!*&>Oj. 

17. mUio esi3,6ia Sfoolctj oizo? oiaorm aooWo 

(Dinni| i £!o iriyurao? ids true Iriyum) Do you know ibal man? Yes, I 
know hira- 

Thr Mtk'AUn idiom r«iaii«i ib» fuiuia fora io:li«d of lit" pnwal. 
nflauifc jauj 01900 Xu iuuUn Ce»e a! e> 5 <b (pertap, nu|| «Ooltq«> «• iu**; 
aearfun Aiootufre of eocurt ihlm>; mi» jot. 

§37. The annetr in Malatfalam usually is giren by repenting Ike 
word in question; if the question must be denied, bo is affixed to 
that word, but alio on >» <ye.i and bsj t»i may be used. 

§39. mo and «p are two Dmonshatm Pronouns, employed only 
before a Noun. They have neither Gender nor Number and may 
be pat before any case of a Noun. (Not so the Gorman: dieser, diese. 
dieses; jener, jene, jenos, but the English •‘this" and -that”); ** 
points to what is remote, ni to what i' near. 

§ 39. The English Preposition “in” is rendered in Malavalam by 
a spocial case: -bo*” being affixed to the nord. The name of this 
case is Loealit*. It chiefly denotes place with different shades of 
meaning. The Noun oflp shows that words ending iu a form this case 
by eliding e (what is called Elision), f.t- of^, ofli«i Nouns ending in 
c like .w«i agfft (ox. 17) insert the consonant ® between die two vowels 
(called Augmentation) o a*- a *'>, Mark that also the s in 

oil* is doubled: aflat* (see § 179). 

§10. oaoa and < iu ex. 17 show that the Objective or Acea- 
sative is formed by affixing hi to the Nominative if the word ends with 
a consonant '«iooa, o»a>wn). 

Exracist 1. 

8. fiilQor; 9. «0<B ».lk.r j 10. i»1 U jwwnt; 1 1. to »M«; 

IS. KVths; II. «I0 lli»l; U. ■>» JBIJ IS. BN M, !«• ire. w. 

1 lYwniWr. 

1. Bow ro.ny p«pt* lira in III* <ou»» 
| MOOWr. S!|WjO O® <3»> 

i. IU 04 (Mbar oobb hoa*> 

I. H)Hl Ibuu kao« tby aMiof 

4<r«%.o«* 1,1'® o***i5D 

I. IX* you know !b» m»o? 

I !a no! <c;i bln 

uiorran *we* 
Zatu o® ( jo 


S. U ynur f«Uwr »t Tflllohorry * 

Xa, 5t It (It Dm houMi al t-M 

««• '«■ 
stud (j'iCoo I'onfsji.' 

*. Han muoh mml 'lid too bring? 
I did ns* bring any wi"M 
•«*”U n'GtWEV* l»oB «.«* 
iODTiftnc*** (WoB IM* .>0 

18 . eooiat <QCP 4 Q 101020 ? (fln» 2 ^ni) foa«fi ai«M (a 6 *hsh inoa 

varnmo? aSlo Tamm) Will roar father arrive today? Ha wiU arrive tomorrow. 

B}7» t o*i&j; m>»i co-it«itow. 

19. rn-Bodoatt A§Udo ftUsmo? erannCio^a %cre «b.§1*6o os m 
(nidnallko kuttig*! undo ? aanna(kka tnfianu kutUgaJ unde) Have you got any 
children ? We hare got three children. 

m1aosk»i Daily# of ffflcBtb lla 7"*); o£a<r, Is Ihr Pl*ral si f«htM). «9«w 
tea* a Ido Hotlr* of (orIi (no) (naluto of th* (ddraaMd)*, $ra Iknt. 

Lit AncblMmio ywf Tfcree chlHr«a »u 10 a. («■), ■» «. aro-, we k»v» 

20. mlsaciiosiico s9,{)ce.6<icMo 6inva«^iJa3 ? ■'nsajaw ®nw^)© fflgj 
(ninnaikknm kuttigalkkum linkbyamo? avarkku saukbyam ills) Are you 
and the children well? They are doc well. 

0°, fcs « Ido end nr rrfiaaaiaao agieosdto «ar s “»id"i •j'1**** It lb. IMUvo 
Plural ol o^l; vod^s hMllhj naa Is :lo Dative of vrcJi* (limy). 

Alf. Is to yo« ind 10 Iho ahlld.-os hoillb? So hsalUi U Iboa. 

§41. There is no Verb like "to have" in Malajalam, Instead of 
this "to be” nith Dative ia employed. Thus: 1 h»f«<o n» i*; tbm bui = 
behM— lobln !■; joo hnvo — so y*« W; ••kadaslova nu, ol.’ Hones: bsre 
yr«* rrfWaib* unit w. bar. no . (bet *(-» , H.,a you got a hal» crfl«w<Me 

I u*s. «ee»Os*»oa v *o bar*. 

nfiprxwaJ’ *Usa late. rrf! co-lies** yoo bar*. 
oso*"Mi i* hos. Beoiea** tbsy bare. 

§42. In comparing examples 16 and 19, wc sec that in Malayalam 
two words for tlie Personal Pronoun “we” are employed: <r» includes 
the people that are addressed, oma (the regular Plur. of ®>srt) ex- 
cludes the people addressed. Great care must 1« taken in using 
these words. For instance, a missionary in addressing heathens in 
the following manner: “uxbioi (sinners) mine will meet with 

nnanimons consent, as he excludes all his hearers and allndw only 
to himself and to those with him. 

§43. Examples 9 and 10 show that some Nouns form the Dative 
by adding a* to the Nominative Case. crilmA— aflat 

•S"i* lhal oblMrtm ijoaUag of filter or nolhir win .«y: ••oaib” Plur. of mart 

|»e { OS). 


§44. Example 20 shows that a" (-n«d| must be added to both of 
the words joined together; thus: I «s>i r™ •»»». r*T*|o, f»iw ln j «hiu 
It is something like <‘que” in Latin, affixed to the seoonil 
word u> be joined. 


IT. «g) rtlld; 18. Ixultli; 19. »0» lo-Jiyi M. WOla (>ar!fr>»; 

SI. ■» i,e Hoy. 

2 . rnndiTlr. 

J. Haw you got * half 1 ha*o i>aao 

fS* ^R:co {triacl «pvto_U) 

2 . Will the iatbre brlaj the children termom*'*' 

L&iw tc*.u» ^.'Tvus 

3. Will the oblldnn to enr thiif TTioy don’t ttw* thh 

•^ljiyfe4_uciL> 8 « 90:00 i 8*i© 

4. \lcr* many children art in that tooief Three children 

coe^o cu;& « *** **®* f>l5V° 

3. Whore do tb7 rhildrea Brit They llm it <in) Tellicherry 

•nutocm ^rr.aa iuutpfT* 

4. What will he do io>motn>*l lie *iU go to Titllcberry 

'wat 9 ^cuj £«ltrva Bacu> ^nror* 


What is: 

1 . The l>xntln» </; <JnjA, Qj\? t 4^<fe, ®«,aP> A & f ft 1 **, ttffilr*, 

dS^PttfVH, Arafat. 

2. AMuiociro c<: ora*, <roar*, trflsn^i, *Q*a, o^r. 

iwajnm, mWi, 

8 . Oath* of: cpriWl, Sfr<b> .ain*, ®Ojp» swrfcP <r 0 

«ftT- 2 a, s^.u», 4i»*<Mn a OO^ «enntAi, ft&Vsq, aSWntam, «aafta*' 

4. What ia «ho Pail Taoio aid Tati** of: a*i »©>, eorfW, Oaij^P 

5. S*®* all the rww of eho thr^ 7«na*a nT “to-oia’'. Set g M, e*. >• 

«. Jfanc all the permna of tha Y«f H u»ier 4. tf their thrr*i To****. 

Pktienf tmy. 

flAigjff* — n >tnA, cm* o aI'Sttb. 
of — oC*»A> asxgym. 

#0x1 6 a 



Awl T-utr. 

f\imrr ftftfl*. 

«*irA m» c^Aigj. «»rc Qai^ — re«»*. m* Oxyj^r. 

erf fa)^ — Oal^J. crfl fi4J^ — ***S|»< 

<iDQj?<) Ooiajj — TOOiA m*0j± ©A)^J — «eo-A ftAiqjr. 

7, Xombtrt : CTO 01 #} t»o; three. 


Sixtl\ Lesson. 

How to order somethin#. 

21. aja omJIiOoo.! (Rlan^Qi, panka villkkoka) Ramonni, 

poll tbe punkah! 

Ql-Aa»a nun* “to poll”. Pm. Q-ijioiT», Ptot. OieTijy, Tut. OrtiW- 

InM-U of o.o?«*o.. O*fl«o *lm m»y lit M<J. 

22. ajmr<\*a.!>Oio! oaicoo ^erroyifo (aimoaon) 

(pinikMrt, vegam muttilam (tfimcss] kopijuvsruvln) SeronU, get br**hf*ti 
ready at once! 

* ajBrilM.jjiB'' U »o Kirariw Plar. at ^imilotiaob; Bar. BJurflan*; «a>«» 
q&tekly; %tn: t*a lir»akf*fct, ufcmally t\* w#c«| MJiu* U tMd Is Etiopeftc hot*** ; c-fti 
Is Mt InpcTAtlfe H*taL 

§45. There is no Definite Article in Malayalam (ox. 21, 22),/. t. 
cunrHaBwe r^n. ojj 1 »o (Tht Hrtil will poll Ua poaktb). If the English 
Article is employed more emphatically, as in ex. 23 “the money," in 
Malayalani the DcmonstrutiTo Pronoun («*> aosr») is to be taken. (*Iu 
Greek also the Article” is only a weakened modern form of the Demon- 
strative Pronoun.) 

23. a,,* ajfiww cm©B§! (E ij i pasaa yenikkn 

tirsttel); attains o.*rno ©gj (avuan panam HU) That man shall gi»e me 
the money, ha h»" got no money. 

ojim. DPMTi e.B*S U tht U-ltJ pottos of Che Inyorotlre; ibe InSnillvt I* 
to glia, Pan one mil Put. oia.; «ooi» Dm. of •onii*. 

§ 48. The Infinitive of the Verb is used aa the Imperative Singular. 
Oi.n*.., Q-iwe., tea, ^Jisna, aug|, 090,, «aol*, ■ciflcmo, go 

thon (gehe tin); tho Imperative Pha. second person is formed with «ji* 
added to the Verb. The third jwso* Sing, and Plur. of the Imperative 
is formed by udding a 5 to the Infinitive or crude form of the Verb 
(aititoi)^, i:uiotj, uoiig, ©!isfj 0 , tip i> >3. a^i’iiBOa)- The crude form of 
a word is frequently used for the Imperative second person Singular. 
Qitfl-. Q«iW«i o®>8= naa^ot®; ms'fl = oo.i'®: <ui= oial®; ml m-mirf!®. 

1» E»fli»h mi On»»» bo *h*U go, or toll gsboo (et gtU|j tkoy ahotl go, tboy 
ti*n know, olf. WSulb.r Slug, or Plor. iklnl portot, "0 only know by ebi Fanontl 
Prtaoia: wnairO o^jnsiOg, aom* au>ao*l 

§47. Whilst in English and German (he Imperative is always to 
be put at the beginning of the sentence, in Malayalam tho command- 
ing word is the last in the sentence. This is a very natural con- 
struction. In saying “pull tho puukah”, the Englishman begins with 
“pull” and having heard this, the thoughts of the servant have full 


play to ponder over all things possible list may be pulled. Begin 
with "aj*-, and the mind of the hearer is fixed at once upon the object 
being requirod, and so the man is ready for further information. 

Exercibe.' Brin* :!« mail! Ort» tkii to nocb.r t Oi *«lckly to TaJUckacryl BUj 
(d»el!) lx you tout* I Do tha to-aomi.! Im> chat! Cbildnra, gull 1U poxkah! Cobo 
Iimb.I Oo to Tolllohorry lo-Uyl Sorrortc. btUg dixx«! Ut • lorcat ,oU t»« puik.kl 
i« > child giro ns that too ! Lae thro go kom»! LK tbm mra do thill 14. bln boo. 
IhMI Lit the child go! 

TTmoU .Km. 

oi-Bl. tio-xnaii! 004 P «**r«aj>t ejj mewasoeisfli! arntoo oeiOjgtf «a 1 
aojat «u>*! mteto oT^lol ojarai Bfl m<o« BOrflo.! (aeatfla!) 

aglftil, <i_a, Qj*f\yln6l ojlgla oiaaTi*! boo aijoaiTifil 

-rfl* o*4C»ojaiciiln6l »ia ajarTaovu* ajft aiiiWlQl «»“i 

•O'" 10 * «o «i»* «at 6 l noid <M->o,» s l qmxtte £ S n»*a*»l «oajr6 

■> fl Bori-aeat «3 

24. diran^eoio Oa_i<i o($)acTO 0 $ ajndb! (aiflundf p*r ymnMu paiaka) 
Toll me the name of thy father I 

Ora. of ^Sitnofl to noj tm^Orr,^ to a. fit hot. oj n U u 

InjorotlT. or th* Verb to op<ah; Pm. o»nb a>r«3ja»j Put uia^; Put. t-sv^i. 

25. ©5 c9ii3@ OWOQjfitToocoojlrn ®rfho«r*Otuotal ®<o»o^d«A. (1 
kattu gavaralyppliu kopjnpdyl kodnkkoka) Tale tha l«ter to Mr- Oo.or i 

fl 'ta lotWr; ooj®^ goat!* man, alia o*«l In.bud oflfr.; oe..tre*i^ai1 ( Put Tooit 
of 10)^91110 taka a.ay. 

26. sroatonio arr>£^ o<uo«ei aaicg! erefj ogjrnlao 

(avafide maaaasn pole 6eyi! adu yenlkka maatssilla) Do as be likes (*)1 I 
hate no mind for it (I don't like). 

goo. of «oa>rfi; o.-n^ »1U, l&ilitit^a; 4iut«at at. Ilka, acotrdlag; 

1* the «r»i» torn of 0*>&, "hloh alto nay So nwd at an tayoratlro. 

UL Of Ml *111 so cording do ! That to do InlloallM not 

§ 48- If the Attribute of a Noun or Pronoun atanda in the Poses- 
giro Case (The lore of God, God's lore; die AUmacht Goctea, Gottes 
AUmacht) it is always pat before the gorerning Noun in Malayalam; 
/. i. auft, ofl*. In English the Attribute generally 

stands behind the Houn, only the Saxon Genitive in the case of persons, 
higher animals, etc. U analogous to the Malayalam Attribute (girl's 
apron; wolves' quarrel). 

§ 49. Most Verbs take one and the same form for their Infinitive 
and Imperative (so all the SanBkrit Verbs ending in uo. in Malayalam 



do love; oiV«u<i>Jl<» do believe; hence ar^adl® means “do love" 
noil <>lo Ioto"). There are a great many Verbs, the crude forms of 
which are employed as Imperatives; still fora more emphatic Imperative 
tho foil form of the Infinitive (or the modern Infinitive) can be em- 
ployed too. SO ajn, Xj.'ill: lu. OuiA; 00 ) 34 ; 0.5, Qi 

rfv*; a*«, jo. * o» 1 aflpj <n>V*), nfl®. (ii»i> 3 ); mu, <r^a otnte* 

• (Vnk); noun, oust* (pat, top); «i, tr.S i» (p..); a.e^, QioiToi (pill); <vjW, 


§ 50. As to the Genitive Nouns ending in <* it is formed by 
placing "t> between n and n; so — aomerto; 

•cm at tho end of a Noun indicates always the Masculine Qcwler, 

§ Si. Words showing the relation of Nouns (or Prouour.8) to the 
Predicate, are in European languages placed generally before their 
Noun, hence they are called Prepositions. In Malaya! am words 
serving the same purpose, are placed behind the Nouns they govern. 
Wo better call them PostpotUions. (re?®* with Genitivo; »~naj 
generally preceded bj an Accusative.) These words are in most cases 
Verb* or Nouns and are used but occasionally like the English Propo- 
sitions or Adverbs. 


fliw ii* llirm RoimmF Taka Hut •••r to ay Cukor! Brlo E ao Ibt lait to 
(Wfl) no lo-ioirrowl Toll "< yonr iaoo! QtntkeutvoBaptatemonnal TMMhailld! 
Bring- ay elrthiti ioicnaJiatalj • Brfcf tb» felnric «!oni! WUm arw ay tUeklng* 
looi* P Brtx>5 tho to*«lf Whew It Che «o»b> RoM the »mbr*l!a f Brfnj; tho oglP 1 Bring 
na 1 *fper u»d sail l Oi** roa Vroad and kuliur! Bring rira and tarrjl G I?© no 
tbc»e ptantatNt 


mrnVfl* cjto o: ! *rt>% ca^anta rto/.-n^a-i: cg/rfvda ajicd 

•*?«90at ms* 0^1 rrfWlo c<*«»Tr^3 <uoAt «o o<nf 

fcpA ©AS*! **<urA CUQ£<X6» aojite e&icrq 

Q/x aqia **K«*i<ar>o 9*4«3:^*£c 

AS o-fraW ^2 nAnn)ac. 

©SOPTJXC. <Jal>r*o AttlCty: flAir^QA. (Tty 

*yT)Wt n&n <oa). 

27. o^rnldM aoi «*Bvog.ii:qo aksajo coifirno (yenlkku oru toppiynm 
kudaynm v£nam) I want x bat and an umbrella. 

Am^pbst; AC umbra!! a (oroally prooono<*«l 04 , 7 $; %tyt $fl); OOinnt I ought, 


I «rnntj with Do tiro c/ f*r»oa In lialayntoai (I mat taro e? to n» la vanb«!; ba wwa 
WOJ® aojfnv; yoo *rint tarCT>* ( e«o.). 


2ft. mosvg cdqjIocj ibissttu roti£rnj| ajoasmo a^cro 

OujieiI a-i.o (ails rlrilo oicc ilnjt! iadstto vaicuira ?ulu poyi p*ia). 
<roej m©^Aiio a-j.2>o oifl>o (alia filogal mlirim virum; Go and til five 
non lo oomo bore to-morrow inoraing ! Only four will come. 

0,0?»ai iMMJngi ansa* a»«j oaoaijhitWi oiOBftro (CLOA+ eajm. 10 osw 
in loflroij rooic cocd«; ^j/m to (bat really • Verb, m* $ 134> • oymj foir; osg* only 
<e«Cfc> bIwajv bekind tbn nzri to vhkh it k*toag«). 

lit. T o-cwrwv t»cr»tof 4r* rorn fclthfr umi omm, to Mil! 

2®. (olsroicxM agy^ aasno? .vino aaisrso; a)J)≤o 

a^lcro Oaisroo; <m:>i6c«M 5)iwzo«r> (niadilkkc yecda vnnim? 
yeaikka onnum vi*di, engilum bhiryakku mirennii Toom, arajkku dias- 
maao) VTnat do you want? I do not want anything, but (my) wife want# 
mcdicino; abc is iD. 

atra ooi ihiag; lb> Sector of in. wblcli U owl toforo > Voiij *x«ni M ilu 
Wigulva ol aaimw oad vau *waal aot*; aan'ej" but (wo } lJ4ji «>a »lf« a® 
iro jioii.-lno; ■eoicft (Pen. of aodjit) I'm; «oo.««i In brr; tflrno 

til. To jm wlmt l« w«*u>lV To aio oao ihitf li aot but u wifo aotl- 

clxo It iuM, H hor UlHW l»- 

30. aimdi&ooMa 0(3) rnW Oojjqo aoIojo oais'no, tfitfiaia.B.Toeo 
maS ®A3ffn\aiaoemD! fl.ft>c§o? (ttaiiakka euikka eornm bariyom 
viiam, reikuaneram ado kocdnvarendal ketto?) For bwikfut I want rice 
end cuiry, in tbo o -lining you need not bring that I Did you hear? 

aaixi liollaC rico •, notbaSanoo noulug. at la (Co onaine; oil<t*«> ( o*o« — aiuws)) 
lo omio la Kt -oatofli d> d:< teat, you man aoi cone; ooiatwoim do uca lirtog, 
70* mu: »:• tn!»j uoj U Pul Ton* of «•«•» lo iurj Pro*. Pol. «♦» 

at.; •br*»kr»*l' for Dallr* m. j 11. *riVa. m § it iXugnoai.llon). 

§ 52. The Defective Verbs oaiano and oojsi-bo are employed to in- 
dicate that something is required or thai It :s superfluous. These 
words are either connected with the Nominative of a Noun, <axttn so. 
«mt — aa»n) or with the crude form of the Verb (aa + taam« cuiiomro, 
oj>j ecino, ajaDtaiaro), in which case, "a." generally is dropped. The 
person that requires, takes the Dative Case "wuxaa and 

ao-ra., if affixed to a Verb, no longer seem to govern a Dative, but tho 
Dative is to be understood, afi ibii»n» = rrf. iu« 
a»-t idj^Ja^ina — **irri 0 «jio (io «onobcd7> a&nnc 1 ba’i l» go, bj »om« tot J 
or loaothlog. ^m'aa Oa.,)I»«iT»- aaiTi (to co) sowrw I miul go, Moauo 

I uMb, will. 

There is another form of the same Defective Verb, not very much 
different from loom namely aaisnj "must", "ought to be”; /. *■ ®nfl 
«j(a«aiirjr Whtl lifarlhinob* di.o«> ®tOr» nj® ofi-Aav aaiogf Which nodical 

UtttBMOl ought to to tuBilortaku) to r IhliF etirt utea> ©o>»»«lF WhM tball 1 do’ 
Brt ao_olM» Wbmto ih.ll 1 got 

The examples shore show that ao<a» (the negation of which is 

«a*wt) in colloquial language 

•ai<6 © n)*^)CT). — 

irfl Ooi»3nr« — 




chieflj employed in Interrogative 

•#* -aa o<»j*a r « ? 

ofl >OvS 

oflCB ®aia-a*»* 

mouth Cal J'fi'ri. 

WO* ©431 ^OW. 


Will jou und yepr »lf» a&J oMIdron too* bore tc-mrerow «r*ol»iF I (ball ton*, bos 
my off*. id my ohIHreo are eot •oil. I mint fire than rntdlclod Do yea *o»t ■odioinoF 
1 do DM »*nt (toy), 1 hire got aodloioo Wboo »lll ywr »lf« oono tor*F 1 do oM 
kmm, Will bn»» it. (lire thli noaey to yoar »lf» Ul your ohlldion not tomo 
bore I li oit go, jire mo my anhrolla. Solom! Wht* It joar lahry a mratbF Wh*! 
o’oloikloUF Donoloalltbobartor tr-d.yf I •«..! my **toh. 7h. -.Ire d»M toil. I do 
ect ««nt hid vour. Do you >ul oold wour? I not tto bullo:Sio»:h. lUre y«a (Iren 
JIB 11 to tto bolImkoF Y«, Jmc no«r. Do aot 'bit lh« reuotiua t—d'*. Tou must o|«B 
tbo door too. Wton .toll I do thi«? Sow. Boo ilu.ll I op*n tba dcurF Do not 111 this. 


ofla- aii^a. mi on ooaindTcqa otmeaiF *©enb ana. -a * 1 

OJ. CaOo oaceo^o (coo-6) aBaiat boot a<hig©aaain. 

I'THm©. *r»cTB Oaionan .^'4 mni. 401 © citt iu cru'. irflorOo *>a 
Sjaao-.a auttoF a »>-6 inoi-ft «Oo>s|>. bo ojOD. 

oat?. (rOorto ©a'®* «<uo» aiiMfi- *a"fla* ao-odaorru, ^ai*o a 3 

(^erflot) aoai»i. nf»n*» mip e 0 TO 4 .tr [rf P o ^)0 (ZSTnlawail? ®a* 

reui^tm (©oor>T>o.ntvT 3 ) oj'V'Ja.wai. caorfWto aanmo. ©(uUBo » 100 

eiro. ,\n«raiatp iunio«n toionaocf ooaajrft aaioro. 
tjolm ©©i^tBboiF onijqa, ajayift. ®iro ®V a *~®’ h oo©aaa.n>. b«^ 
<um»Mi notaaik. re 10 if .alajiih ©aJ«a*«F u*ad*h (Han (too Si. 56.) 
met oiittW* coaftlm gaeAwgF ®B «ot trfVl © m i. 

Seventy Lesson. 

How to assert. 

31. sns a-jffla*oh ogjsioho OQ)o^rODi9.cna That man is my eider 


no 3 {diitlnjpiiibed frai VQOM); tb* aid* brotb**; XiUynlaa 

jwoplp imj tho *onl •OtoCAcr" but «ld*n, th*y d«tlft B uUb Always bUiM an aW#* 
a youafvr broibac. a*. 1. U»a. I) U ih* UaUjaU* (*p*lu or a. 

Auxiliary Y*rb gluing ftl* Sab>»<t to tbn PwUifAU In a MOttOM. Iti iotMlng U •* 
l» tkfll*. 

82. CoW^^S rogj (1)COO<M* Toot 80Q i» a good cae. 

pa of m. 

§ 53. rogj i» oue of the ferr words employed just like the European 
Adjectives and means “good ”, “line ”, “true M . The word has no gender 
at all and may be put before any Noun [<t)^ food f*th»«r; <n$^ na 

fool no4b«r; aoj&n gocd vaUv), but by affixing the Personal Pixmoun 
(«»o-A Af) to this Adjective it is made a Noun (# in Greek or 
German 6. co ifadfe tj. tfv; dor (Hu, du o«u, *m 6m> Thus be- 
comes cnftQxh (*<t» rjy i»OjrA) a good man; erudite (ASO o>* Olid)) a fool 
tomb; i^» m*| «o®) a good thing. 

33. tinooMB&s qjI$ dioc^lajfi^<m3aicro Tboir how is pretty. 

«QrfBor. g<m. plar. of o»a»A. 

§54. icc^V^aio^oaB ra««u5) + am 4* 4-«ru^nt. Aa we said above, 

there are only a few Adjectives in Malayalam and one of the ways to 
procure the necessary substitutes is to affix the Participle «►* (“in 
which, to which there is”) to the Noun, thus forming an Adjective 
without number or gender: •acdV^afl. In joining to this Adjective the 
Personal Pronouns <n>cu*, *w® vre get Personal Nouns: tTW^aa 

cuA, /fcnqoiQrih ^n>bai8* In affixing to such the Copula ****<», the 
vowel a must he elided (§34. 39). In the same manner we form in the 
Bentence “mOionfca r»j*jnb on?o^^«axr>aci ' the word DC^ajj^BOjA 
from the Noun ceruse^*. But instead of this construction more fre- 
quently we see the Noun construed with a«d\ “aaa*w>s im W, 
or a»^o» oowqjjo *rf.” (see § 58). 

§55. The Copula i* not to be placed l*tweea Subject 

and Predicate, but at end of the sentence ; f. e. c« oAf m«a («j>ao*) 
TUa It ft Aire how. 

§ 56. Subject and Predicate ayree in Number and Gender, 

mgjajiwbrm, rr>jyo*k/ro, a* m^iue««a*rT», a 71^^ 

«aoj being the Plural of «®*, according to §89 « must be 
inserted). To denote the gender of the Adjective, the Personal Pro- 
noun ■oqjcA, sc aj<to, «>jj is affixoi and so the Adjective becomes a Per- 
sona! Noun. (Q>. in English: *your son is a good one”, in German 

*lo tha »Mtk of MataUr sfa» a Mfifcr form a>f*'A{«)«act) 1 * in cm. 

Hie Adjective Predicate is indexible, but it can be transformed into 
a Noun by tho Article: “er ist ein tapfcrcr"; "sie ist oino schlimmo”; 
in Latin: *rosa pulclua est"; Greek: -jj dpert; xoArj ion-,’’. 

§57. *<rn«jos and weans®** • show that there is a second form oj 
the Genitive. The Nominative ending in «,«,*, me and a*, the Gcn- 
tive is formed bj adding *<*. Of course, if the word ends in a vowel 

• must be inserted (see § 34. 39} aoxiraoa, ajo-sai, lue^ra, 
aglaias, ooo^gos, etc. Nouns ending in * take either a*® or /. e. 

Bongos, Jockos, but: (from or thorn); 

people in gencrul say aoaianto («< too i*orf) and oWWfco (of tb* d»r), al- 
though and <n:go- would be more correct (cf. mio « Dat-). A* 

to Nouns terminating in a both ®<*«> and aa* may be employed, but 
the ono or the other Gen. has become customary: («*>^ Dat.), 

sometimes also *a*te<«n, eavniajf*. but ojwiWfco, a/*«n*rto 

of the field, afttfuto (Dat af^loa, Nom. on* a bow.) Still with ex- 
ception of q*(l(*bn and QjVafWfco, where a secondary form ending in a 
(qi 9 and on^i hence also Dat aa'to and cdlaflae) has been taken ns 
the base of Declension, the Genitive of all the Nouns ending in o, and 

* may bo, and perhaps ought to be, formed by tra 

§ 58. In comparing the examples: 1 . «nVa afi'e-d* an (Lesson 
6. ex. 19). i. wegn 6 oTitfv* 9 W (ex. 16). >. »» ajam** ^ 0*0 *5 
^nioiTo. we may come to understand Hie difference between asn* ami 
<aiadi<m. It is not identical with the difference between “to haTe" 
(No. 1 ) and “to bo" (No. 2 , 3) (haben and win), bnt a comparison bot- 
neen Ko. 2 and 3 shows that in Malayalam an as well as ci^aae 
may be translated in English by “i 6 ". "»ti " (iBt) denotes farther the 
existenco of something: “there is", “exists”; »ffe*cro is only Copula 
and indicates “what” and "how something is", and thus it means “to 
become”, "to be such", "to be that”. 

Exercise 1. 

a®* 1 b *'« 

irflima* an ibou tut (ml«mu*d’). 
«nw» aw» bfl k*» (u<uo»W). 

a*>-b ojea v I »m. 
nfl Wjair* >bo* mi. 

ha it. 

peak w« i*ro (m$ 4 ar/), 
s»tr» w 70a (rr^«0(>>cncnf). 

cnaiM pv* hmm (roa^r*). 

roo er sk*<td ire. 

JOU *r». 

«®cu£> ai)6 an lixtj fcfo. 



_ Kxn^-fcVai. (T>*et 8 v<K* — AqaCIgg. 

mViiotaww}* — trilaM>«i«*>>ir — -ifk»rt«»als,. 

•oaorperns* — woaxtjfle,. «>ajO»lfr»:P — Bieato.'^*, 

Exercise 2 . 

I? tliie warn j«o> aldir brother? Vat, be ;« » m><) brwher. I kuo» blu. Hem- da 
you law hint? I do no! tell joa. Why do you act (all ml’ I la tu likt to On it. |IUn 
no mi Sri hr It.) la your brctUr well? H« la rretty well <he baa teoi health! Hot hi 
too? Itbil meow: Art job well? lit la to jou t«ltaf) I on *«ry wall. My i!»«. or. 
«ry ditty. H»eo I got m aUao ahoaaF Pour Iona mlk lo Uii* auji. Thu milt li a« 
goad Thlo water It dirty. 1 do i*< want milliard to-day I want two potaiici. I bar* 
got *orj giwl flak lea. Tbia kolfa it illnyj tai. it away! Ycu art >«ry Idle; take oatal 
0 * elr, do not boat mer 1 thall take oare- 

Trout tin mi. 

Sj: a^oiiOirO trf«n(®a is^ayim-rmsas* ewitr., raaffl ^afini aa^roi/ia. 

«Oi« BBOiom *®r<Vno. irCUxih acojotn ^.cwla-n «jo 1 <^t>» ito$ to>-t MVnSajg 
ojistfirflgj. awj mVotS ojorggiiri^g]? Mtofln* rtf oat 

*«s •avay«»*iQjm>«<n»aast(<Tr.««5»5aa^^g(rn«toD0fly ) aB»w»if>«eajao 

mg, fcrtf . m'<rs30,«B BOK'XLjqlmr utirf&i mg, . merbo 

•airflgJ®”* wytta a>»m an (letter erajrae!®! — «og®« 4 03®!, tee «x. II). 

OtUiityatb E&e:-,? *o *»*,■ ojtrt ru+& (aj» 

OB), to o_ott mtmaj. art oa»B* ®*-i9«tawn*‘TB (3oJ<l«i«Tc*frs). tiro 

*>? (®S®) a<u« •^■rikoa atr» ao-trito. *j©»at mg, 

. too aroril J-Xit* "t®™ latter (OmoniVoWan); «n-j v»o*qi<ls»b! 
<rfi ^Q4a) B^Vsiaaoim (nfl a>«na O^tarti) ; try ffoTktn • coa-£o aana o^, <r!irm 
rodxaaroa; mm rryotn"lt>a.. 

SI. ftilmmio « 2 ” (rylcu&s ccto)3QoaiCra. sroiaii staej, ooiao a 
toio c3Vja<cra Yon are the husband of tkia woman. Not I, another mao Is 

gT^kgjos Bta. of 0^1 wonoj (eormpyiiUag with ojiwair* non) ; awoj hut tool 
(aia wile), -a’ oialU-d by elMoOi Bog, not, Xagition uf eiBo-re; oa-».u abet. 

35. ereaiiio ajl“dM as) <si$,t0.crnO'uo? act oj>3t)fl 2>4>6o (TftQCTO 
Is sbe & naughty cbiM? A naught/ daughter, indeed 

OjViJt lad, naughty; a&0> datighur <«fi»rA — ?); 0 />m Juil, l!>a#od, «Tra, tw. 
TIi« Copola, k«lag oTtea fr^ooollr < 0 >CCm h «tnpV>j>d; boC ukf %&ji 

*<t» ** ih oami erfto^ro. 

38. sronn aiaoDaro (*it-o)D03srn)? ecn anBaao^o «ne>Q siruoica 
. 8 ig'AJ£o o^i 0031 a ^ p ii crB ' Wbo “ lh “ t? A n,olber *“ li,lb cbJli[M 
ore Kin-ling outwdo. 


araoJoTTl = — *SOiTO, In oolli-jol-I Ungug. thU «xpratiloi grairally li 

b'^i «j«i six; «niri>» null, littlo; ojoi^a out»Si; mj«,e 10 nu4, Fr?<. nfl®,™, 
Fan rn'KiB, Fin. mlfc,.. 

37 . dns, oicjIco z<jjo ■s.oonxreaoio? 231. cioio^iaiTnldi rr>§j ifiwowjjo 
(a^-togc) gsm' IX. you bob that Urjo treo? In this garden are 
nice trees a&d flowers. 

ojailoj Itrf*, gnai, big; oo® In., An-- Atom; (Xcnin*ii<« fan. lo «aed for 
AttutMlTe) +i<rofr to sec* Prof. &:<rorra, tviit ap^. Put. d*icr=o: jj*rd*n, \&c 

®os a «Trtj *<ua * * PI ur. of tf»»; o^g^ot* Pier, of Hover; ^ Fl«r. 
tb» uue. 

§59. ©gj is llae Negative of and means “there is not to it”, 
••in it”, or “does not exist”. S4tii ex. shows that wjy is the negative 
of and so it means “not to to such’ 1 , “not to l>o that”. As we 
have in our European languages only one word for this distinction 
(“ not” or “ no ” — nicht ” or •• nein ,f ), one must be very careful in distin- 
gutilitug ©gj and erog). Very ofteu denies tlxe quality, m* the 
existence. So we say aflorio m^a^. but ro^nS fin; 

nyrt*m oj < n» c?j* 

re/t oQ^faia^? ciiirt) ca&j. 

<rfl afl 

<nls*©th rrTiaeto «*g4. 

tr,*.k «a«*rm3ajo? tnaifc aojk. 33,Bx. 1, b. 

§ 60. (from *a') «»*** (from ot,<b) show that the Plural 

is formed by alining e* to the Singular Number. If the Noun ends 
in m* (erao. oj£}>), «o> becomes «mbA; thus toraft, a^g^onOt. The 

Plural of shows that after a long &> "a,' is doubled, the 

same occurs alter long a (<n») 0 o. and j (g). For another affix 
to denote the Plural Number, see §81. 

§61. Non /is ending in irroo form their GenitiTe (and the other Ob- 
lique Cases) hv omitting and substituting qa; so, *«., Gen. 

«**»; 1J5S*. Geo. Gen. ojarexalanto. s in , is dropped 

and a substituted (as on* crfltfWbo) 





lb* chiU 

Itf filldrea 


» 3 »)3l 



to • 


Orn or Pou. of the eblM. oglo^e* of the cklUrre 

Lot. In . •**’-? a~‘x* In , 


Oat. y^r» or «o co 



Loc. rre^crTI H 



-Vwu. tho *ftr»lon. 

fio jflrduii. 

.•Jcc. iMfiHB 


Dai' to 


Poss- 30#&m\ct(*n nf 


Lee. lavs ml <A In 

>*n*n£** to 


-Vion. vb'ls III* hcuir. 

iho UniMi. 

Aft. a.l*lff<n 


a‘i %oe«a 

Dal. alls'aa m 


o’l 10 


Qjl S Og.BB Of 



Loot ailri'Ki in 


aflseHt'I'rt in 

Exercise 2. 

"'hat Jm» fb’t -eann dof She tow to Tollle berry. 1M you Sun* her! Y«. ! fcoow 
hot. Who .1 lor hatband t HI- inure it Raima. Where don hr lire? 5oi bin, (■ 
Kttltor bnu. Ii hr a !>vl a**’ So, ho ii tutUr • good m.n. I natt we him. Wh.l 
for? Rt U ax well, 1 heir. I dW aol hoir that. 1 tin- him IhJi noraicg, Yoj re« 
hill" la. in bit very bum*; ha ii [roll; ’•ell. Hwlir toiohltdreir Yet, hr hot got il». 
A« the7 nice children* They ire nought; children, indued Will they Mine hire? Yet, 
th!t itociing I re- them iiliodinf) oiltldo of tho haute. 1 thill no then. 7h.y thill 
nol oobo hire! 1>« yon heir I lUe my Uinbre come* See, he Is -alllnr (teCJiil®.) 
in iho verudih (9®iaiia>”lj. It ehi* a nice -Key i aio) f Ii it not a non ttory. «Wi 
word n Nana (miCe)f Ic Is nol • Moon, It b a Verb n-fian. Shall I come hare lo- 
mtcrowf I hare no tiroi. 


.nr> • iaaa ri-jm! oooifo aaiJ^jri’.a'IJniat iumicd. crdaaj* cx>aj« 
Bbfla*|rr»»aj!r oolo>, coj-ft e»o<f>a ran'l3jiTe. snaijAS tofesaj *i8^:<rrT * «ra 
e«o mo* iflmW. «o<u'6 ajiiaafejoJla 


mi i .TTOl tUMliV* 

vp think MfcU l» xct ebe pUot w | &ta of^il cra?rn . citfenb *« oT»?«a €^|> 

*T>fca»aji? WMk <*» "»W *&<*> 

««ai(TB ftrtXr^jQ )p|«i ^TD T&U't 1A^. ^lOjVlfii 

ot:<* 6 na^Ti dfcs - *. ci?.’nOj <jo njorr, ot-j a s ct»a>3>^)o al’^lci <o4m>. *©£; 

CD 'ftroaTki}* oav:e^o «W. n>aja* a<r» , $"*> ««ajA 

mg A«la<k nr&^rneaa*? «tna^ aflfi.** A|1 aA «fcm. «oa.A curao«»? 

ajtte», {trrn ib:aDwj aJltjlciflio ajra^B ®>*6 c*a.«o dicrj. a»“6 «>mtt:o. 

<TOfU* art<i*-»! 3<fc«spF «Q«^K> qmWl axn>9Qj0f «ncur*j Ojrrc 

JT.i*nr^f:^5. »a aK£4®lf **£ <Tpj on aitf* «4» miAM&r 

f»a *&1 ®s»;at©. (BXtt meat :uaa4roaasf n«B% 

38. Q2^ a*«2oroa4 a*j)gjo ajsrnlf3>^fi>Jx^o (or ajonlidpoftio a(J) 
gjoo) Qt&Oa &ajQajl,MTra This master maltreats all (his) aemnts vert 

cnaa>mrri mwler; mcj> *H <k*for* t Xoun); <x*nT*la»^ Plnr. of ojeritawo*, 
Ace. <Uk« o*a>*fc, wa.fc); a*©* mucIi; fln-^ajW tB^jCafl^, 

qJV*»>; wailful WLab the Nuiiotnl <ojj> r*«*d*5 * Noun or a Tnxiooii, it \\roy% tb« 
final e©o whDt tkot 2tai» vt T-rc^m W itirnrUUy tin cam.m'.r. ft> alUcbtl I© It. 
•ggjsrvtta/?; * 3 ^: nt*> ( * •44f s 

30. *v3iO-d fflonoai o_) jam crrol c&riWo ojen^ m>3o4 mrvs>2 Oil 
0T3JO wc>TOM Quoffca^g] a^Wso I owne ywtetdsy frc*a th« town, 
and I shall not go thitbsr again to-morrow, iinlj. 

Ijcmlii jftfarday; ougcroj city, r^ysna&sA Lm. In the city, ejsffTnt^mk m 
t nm tbo city; (AVr Aftlnlto lit fin fit); wJ«t)j tklthnr ©AJi^tsTfcj la-t«i>ri 

of HUWlln, vMob l» Ttrj lotdora; m*K»<a* b » Noon, n**nisf cvrUJiUf, fcai alio 

aid M *a Adr«rb<=«ur*ly. 

40. an»t^aoh o cachaiotm a>&ao cco(/»t3§c *<?<d«a (aasmojo 
Otf)cm The bc-ly of mao is «zp»ed to many diwn$&? aal at laat to death. 

Ur. T 11 icbii’ft b»»Iy n*ay aud, nt !mi, d«suh cor»u. 

1>#{. ait si?' nnob, ms©v; Oiw^iIIicmc; 

ftiMTTM&fclti; tn aftlxiar &* to word* pndiip in mty. is «ni?t*d snd oj iul«titutpd. 

§ 62. The two Verb* cuiTM. and a^-^- show that if double — is 
jnectxl&l by the vowel a “ «*■»»" of the Present Tense becomes ^ in 
tic Past Tense and o«- in the Future. Thus, aiBlWm. a*ilo»«, 
arQ^jj, most of these Verbs 

are of Sanskrit origin. 

§ 63. By joining the Participle on™ (from <rTa,<rt> stand) to the 
Locative of a Kouu we get a new case, the Ablathe, which indicates 
“Removal from" or “Origin from" somewhere. Thus a^umwfakrfki* 
fioio iS" cilrj fioi» lli. 5*iso; sn oimTianvoD etc. 


gfii. In comparing the Genii ire and Hie Dative of tlie Noun* or 
Pronouus, employed till now, we tee tliat there arc two forint of the 
Genitive (®*a and am) and of tlie Dative («* i 43 and a> ex. 23. 40). 

®&"lo Crxtt i oiWsjnr, <n)co(>>o*; HMJQI4, «n(ueti but soaifVin, 
maicoj 'oiflaaela.'Oo, ..dl.sBaVi*. «<n •*, nr*.-,. a®*.®. So wo may form 
the rule, tliat if Hit Genitive ends in cm (§ 57), the Dalire is «, if it 
ends in ®rf>o. the Dative ends in <*. There can be no doubt that the 
inflection ao* has its origin in the roof at, which signifies -belonging 
to", hence tz&a.--b owner. So the Genitive denotes chiefly Ownership, 
Possession; /. e. -ao^o otcMTinivs.i ts. of iim tin?. Be- 

sides this case literally has the meaning of a Genitive th. m., it signi- 
fies "Descent”;/, e. mttoto ototooO ik? nun. nr this; ®>MiaAaitn ojqks et» 
■m of ■ king. As in other languages «e may also distinguish between 
a Subjective Genitive (aimaflnrfto o,®a^ th* tonug of tiit king}, in which 
case the Genitive is logically the Subject governing the following 
Nominative Case, and an Objeetiw Genitive (ocn>i«?» us a>iy no is? kwiorj 
Of Mom?), in which case tbe Genitive logically is depending on tlie 
Nominative following. As to tlie Postpositions preceded by Genitive, 
see § 220. 

§85. Ex. 38 — 10 show tbut I he Predicate or Finite Verb of a sen- 
tence is not placed behind tlie Subject as in English and German, but 
that it is always the fosf tvori in the sentence ; /. e. i •*« •«* « "Im 
lln«*r r»:<a mo oj 


1)*> /lit /uur n>:<itOf ? 04 l k« 1 l>*9 her! Are your Ca th*? and mot ter enjtrior 
gw«l betHli? They ire doc quite veil. Arw «b*y *t U>me* Y*s they »r» M boa*. 
Wbm £jj yon come fmm the U*n? We c*ue y morning. Whet did you ere in 
the city? I nony people, 4ev*r«, nad trt*e- lint* yw broo^fcl icmi 

«o<r*r* hither ? 1 did lot bring any. Bring tlie iftk-toule! Wloie lok-brtHe it tbU? 
1 bought It yefterdejr in tie b***ar. Head tbU pet! On tin yn^r! Tbit Ink it act 
tUck. QUt »c«m (ana*) nice Ink. Copy thU leiiti. Who itoada outside? Ho» you 
do trouble <m*lir*et) Tier Ke*d ebb letter. Olve thh l«c^r to try emaatJ Ut all 

thu NrtioU obM here. 

of. ccojQ^ -a«3r3jo t<rgzD*a>™. rrilmta 

*t>7suHa siiro^^s ft! cro>® «*a-^e engj b^ojA oTlanfc 

cm®, »oA aflgVib cnWid* ajimruecft efctfae -oe^ix* ai<n>? «ewA. ! ® 

m\tz j fteoftfu Ojo*. ajftfmatfVik Ml nZtSi act*? cvxt «cfc*3 mgj 

trfi QJ 3 J 

6 m § 4t. 

• Tbfft 

“ay parent* anil I" but nc4 tho perftoni n't** eiied. 


eawt&Bt «*ttiraaS ftafaktjVftHltf ? *ajm tfo^ 
aimaai usaottTxar^M'/re cii^nuojjm . ac^aok J eo <&riW J 

«? eatat •cljsoi. «®.-) *aft «<tW. *03 ct^(icot? 

o^n<g| ftflfeOfeiT! ofl i4jtf<tr> *a&> ttv^aSWro: bc ojjwWi u? *»Qfl 

aaodin aJffrfWlttm O0*><Q4» ! ^tySaj^TT^CPTIc fi 0*9*3 ajrv»at 

§ 66 . Observe that id the case of parents and other grown-up 
people the Third Pe)'80» Plural is used. Hence not **ucfi but o»ai»s 
(abott 4 •KithHP), just is servants in Germany sometimes speak about their 
master or mistress: “Sie sind uicht 2u llause, sie sind ausgegaugen”. 

Eightl\ Lesson. 

How to assert ( II . Part). 

41. (mejo^fiocD^^ o)EjV3>o>Dd>.cm. 4*0$]? oaxo 

a33cocrj7lo l j Cc&yj kbe»o$ o^ooojo ojejta ojgsrno at fc<a>crr3 Calicut is 
grtater than Tollichcrry. Is ic not? In Malabar Calicut is the biggest place. 

<£0<^3 tT><i:etr* tk«e CxnpumSiw; ijroagj ai nucL m vn^jJa:? a^DOQJ 0 

ufcially u»^3 m Adr«rb to indicate a Soprrlntlre as nub an, 'most*; **4fto the 

HOW CfH:«00 lit* in# fnr MxUUr, 0*is« ewntrr. 

12. a^gjoxjfTj^dSirra^^o^c $K»*5Y?gj$iS Oajflxj f^«D*o 
CfoSZ&j into Afro Our Bible is richer in mining than all other books. 

0 ^ 0 # »o>k; Bible: ncce; m:«fw wence; to torn sb Ad- 

ynlrt like Higal&snt* or Ti«h m im*nl**\ *fc* It joto*. vhkk ousl b. in UeXtuter 
Oooier ($ JO), vhj* 

4 3. A^Waf^otSo arro^K»^<T2oft uroa>la«> 6o;si^cc|Qaa»©(y 
ocno? Are the parents not wiser than the children? 

fottw jfrreaA iwn&s - e s^ rb) psiexU; cqU u\ uaderiUmlit/; cojiuj^Sfi clever, 
III# (ertxsal Xo»u cltrtr cm (mu) , o «1tt om. 

§ 67. To form a Comparator.*, the person or thing to which some- 
tiling; i> compared, lakes the Accusative and *»>* is affixed to it •» 
takes the place of ••than" in English or “ale" in German {quam in 
Latin anil lj in Greek). The Comparative form of the Adjective is 
expressed bj placing muTe* before it (but this is not absolutely 
nccossax'j, see ex. 41). 

To express the SuperUtfite, we place the Adverb > 3000^0 before the 
Adjective myaj*. The persons or things amongst which sonic* 

body or something is the first, take the Locative case, /. e. mtunrto 

• m. 4-.0.M0B, Poll T. a-iO^Si PM. 


oonatf> Hu H tLi men olovar itKupi 

liU VpmUh. 

§ G8. Instead of the Interrogate *= at the end of the word in 
question (§36) may also be employed, but generally we find it 
only in connexion with Negative Verbs, especially o&i^ or sou f o. 
(rtftmao Hum jot nut go! n honor ec.® nf ■*'<*» Jnwl D» you aoc not 

Ilf On the whole, -_j is seldom used in book language, but in colloquial 
language much more than qj. 

Exercisr 1. 

•ttOiVj tr^ cr>of Uko tuajlaiajmift'r* 

E« to $r«mr thin tb»t ha a. 

H» u ilti iTMMit, 

Exercise 2. 


mVniJtsjjmi — <r>;cocfcfn~f£j«o) *W- 


»sir 6 0 IB«<TBSQJ 5 — «!(« 

«a.-b «3Atrt*an— «ii* «nfc*sit (»o»ai)» ott. 

Exebcise 3, 


Hf U gno«W lUn kli ftther. Hi. Utbor ii «*< .tfwr Ibtt So li. Hrt IikoM il 
nirri Hun jetrt. Thio tlolli Ii la^tr tUa tbo oilier mo H» n Iho oaongtt 

kit broiJert. Bo It Ibo jrtut-n rogue biduoiH Ihim. Ho. autS »H*p- A Ibti |m!b- 
In* Ihtn t mango <ro.! H. It non fiii|«.tl hi) dfier oitlor- He M mo™ Idfc !U»n 
kit joungcr bulbar. Kama U Ibo mot! tur/il tanatn o*r tomtit. It llit HtUjoUm 
ling-Mg- roor* ibtn Ibo Engllth? Tlirw mMMoIni «• *«brr chon iho NUgino- 
Tbit ooll it *Uiye> Ibtn Ibtl tub. Tbit UO" ttblo it b*OTi«'tbn» !h* ot4 ran TbU It 
tbo tiort na'roB tirwt In ibo Ion, Hob inert iHil ni!k It! Tbit itoagj it iw lioi 
•tragur. “bit oil It rtUt|m IbiB Him. four ourtj In b» Aol. He* billff lb* frnii it! 
Ho it tUaltr lh»n ba filhor. Hit ISMW i» «hoo mini. Your btl it «cry rtf. 

Your homo i» nuttfrr Hull ilul of jour wlgi-.bwr. 

«oai*6 •to^eman-ft aj tTisi ajrrxei a» . otaanOtitii ro^fb n&aim 

e<m. nf na^OB wtojo^o afl* o'6r 0! ‘> , ' n ’- eon aij^otranoKb 

cn a cuiilia«>*ir». maarttm (nj-xifraro'flri ooort iflutvap ®aatL<«. «tto>» 

in si cl <» 141101/1 odTra ei aix'lofnan* *0 a 17*19 ax-i-Jus o»n 

oox«ro aoi, rgeo'^soii* mu'*! BWoO^ 

uunrbK ioro«nn,-i(iO xnuiloo eili^ai>»T»fi<m. otsjbti uanUtiiiW 

eifl^A pjl!i»T>jaai(Tx«>on. B'aP a J" ,JcncB<Billj )y®i!ic 

ifW-/$W>»3vs«ii>> »u oi<i/om» «euTtAo x<a!«i<TD. 03 

aaw«a #« aTmrxi oi^u^caa- *®wA*«»i<fe BO oj<*h» «ai» aJItrVn 

esjj. OJsanoi'A * 300091 ' l-mes •**®ofVlfl Ko.:<»iro. *o not* ~I © a <°> oc^o 
«aal »’ 3M» ooufAi «0 «®<|goaj^et*> »a> oigdi-s 

com? (Me «i. SGj. mojjm aol awola^ . bi ocio *asl ^»3 

D a! TO^em«K-* mart «ou?U* o/qptqaeai'*. *r»:tr> Oi£ »i«>» m^atn 
Q-t'i rnuflao anaiqaafl. ofttasyfiB oocgj'l a* 8 u a- <1-39. nflrojsn *nm&,i 
c®-6o a"b‘n<ndi:'0 (nl«j®s of* •^ 

44. i^9<tQJSSo d.€'go0-»4 QiJ)roldH roa^i&lgj, uiyso) 

ISO comma I do one like to drink warm niter, I want fresh water. 

=J 5 "turn, hot; cxo*° »itir ; ®. 4 lo«. 10 driuk. *£\ywi> t* *» Ailrerbiol Parti- 
**| 1 » (Pot Ibbh), nal «n Ut»iil>», but ►:m.tbm E Ilka tho Utio &pnnim (MMIiib, blbt:*, 
10 drink; uin in trinkoa, iu f rlnkra) B«g> — lih, '•111; gramma, frelboMH, 

fortm (tike a*?) Kjetbcr -lib -»t-r (fr»b mitcc) * Conpoun.l. 

45. orjcaV^oroa, ftCPi®lfA aflyygjoixiBo 1,0130 
idiO^Tiiiin ojoWjotco c^i^laAo a^ 0ajo<9icro 
Children go to school to re»d in looks, to write cm leaves, and to learn other 

oi9»W 10 read; aosfTyjnA u molt as anil na< 51 j,>"t) a ft AdrerMal 

Fortltlplm In tbc Future tease ) 3 uplnntn), expresslis an Iniontlon; anu —riling !tof; 
^JVBa to —file; .01®. thing; mo\Oi Is hare; .a^qSnjffl' itboil. 

46. oSloi Oi'Jl^ocA g,i>Mo lOiOOfliltnjo <o*onn1cqo o^) GaWsns? 
Sieg>«i<9>3«n3 aiB2? aleiOTwn oacoflaoii «awo»'! Do I not want fork, 
spoon, and knife to have (my) dinner? Therefore, put them daily on the table. 

ai/lot to bring, pan. porforn; aP<flb*rfW Co ta(; )Q_-Jcra siuti (I > not, IsUyrcgitlvo 
of to <$♦#, ex. 4! *01^1; iJwwfcc*, oorrwpcodlag with »333n«vj»? 

whtntom («x. 10)| olajroo cUy, rfkuttnxn <Uily, »*UwV:rit nuo «ppk»y*a m an Adr*rb 
l» ViUfitan; «c* AdTOrb oboTc, o<i t upouj QOidio b> p«it (ao^o*, ooj^, cuo»j). 

§09. 27ie Adverbial Participle of the Future Tem is employed 
to express an “Intention’’ or tho “Reason” for willingness. To com- 
plete the whole idea auoUier Verb or a Noun must follow. This 
Participle has a similar meaning to the Dative in ex. 30 indicating 
also “Design”. 

To form this Snpinum & or <» is dropped and either ornt or yinb 
is affixed to the Verb (see $ 174). So all the Verbs ending in &*» take 


b >-*> in the Supioum, ns well a* gjli* in the Imper. Plm.; /. c. 

•slytri ian'e« *r» «<*>> cm 1 dolin' in drink niffi Ut- »»tw co ilrlnk tamo 4 *»Im i« 

§70. Not only i 9 the portion of tlio parts of speech in a Simple 
sentence very different from English (see Ji§ 47. 55. $5), but also the 
connexion of the parts in a Complex sentence is quite contrary to the 
practice in English. Note thnt first the reason, (the Subordinate 
sentence) (c\. 44) or the intention (ex. 45. 4G) is gircii and only after- 
ward* the action (or the Principal sentence) is added. Wo say in 
English: vft go t. *chc» <« i*a> toi*u. (lot-oima); hut in Mulnynlnm: 
(intention, aim) juio.™ (action). 

§71. •av'ffl«j»kaitaio. shows the Locative in connection with a 
Dative (?/ie Locative Dative) To combine both of the terminations (»■» 
ami •>) >a is employed. This case expresses chiefly "motion” and is 
translated by “into'' in English ("nach” in German: si; with Acc. in 
Greek); J.e- Tin foilur »«ai ia T.iuiWfj (see § 171, II). The Locative 
answers to the question “where" (wo), the Locative Dative to the 
question “whereto", "whither” (woliin) and the Ablative to the ques- 
tion “wherefrom", "whore” (reoher). 

Exercise 1. 

Whortfo do jou go? 1 go to ichcol. Whortfor* do you go there* I jo tl»#r# 
to tvj 4 and to wnto. Do you like to go thorrf 1 like It T«ry much, WMo till 

jou go hum* again? Tim «vtr. ng. Wh«» do you go U EtftryUy I stall 

go to **> you till* svauiag. Do yo« wlrh !• work haft? Toll (hln^ to fcriDg thn fl«h- 
Giro roe water to vAsh tuy tand*. Whore did yo« got chit matuo? Wr, 1 g« it *l tte 
njyket Go nrxl gt< bettor wottoo ttan tills Tell <th*n) to f»«U tli* P*akt. The 
farrier lo woo. Toll (Him) to *k«w our bulk***- X man l*t eotoo What 4tW I* wont ? 
Ho cats# to toll a hurts Toil (him. to Uk» U away, l do x»t want it. 


mtaofc <oajta«« ffoxrt 

•p ix woojUm; xscil^caso *39 3 qjjcos foo*t> a»afWS4t 

3i.o£»ajtTi ivTiaarMt «t<m # trfkncfe 

a Toy* oflglMMt la^o.! ® t» **aj+9nruto. rrflsccb 

aojoi £\*}*cnxn. «o <i»QJM<n*feia I finttatd d 

cnaAit* a>yh art*. oj«tO **wia*nai)rfc 

(a^>r*a:<xo't» ajo. ■tfa'bo *tfNfr<ux* oaJfto tusl 

(*£9 thwp) of. aaoal? ®ac/T ( 003 «>"*» «*<e»4VrfV*cvf)<ro cu*rfl 

*OgV>*P 0*. <uo. tKS^orb 

Odir*. CTiXjftS *:&*<&£* *»ae .nOogji-fc (to oAil) «uo (alto Oi-eu IMtfQjMfc). 

Qjn^. moyra ®aaa <tcTo oT^o^r 6 (aT^xt) «xo ajrro. mootam 

avoicr** i _ixu3r6 Oitrt) cuo; *©a 



Exercise 2. 

l.ce. a la Ibe beiv. 

Ml. ofl^Wrrfl «n> frra lb? bout*. 

Lee. Dal. o.'IbVjbjM Into the brow. 

47. ODUismai oDamaio aoloj. acuigiaitaoio <£<sj 

cowi moo oftculdWa. 

7b* Non. cisei of foiml. ftojaof* >ro: Ml*, fcaj. Siftflii iw»»' ’bj*, 
a-flaimi, jsBlgj, crfka*. ofloftatoo, sflaTl^. efiaiW. 

48. e® <aorgo ailalorao sraoab a(J)«oin ^oimoQj'oma^o Mol 
omo^o aroaecto^a O^jdajVoWioi On account of thb matter (thiug) I 
separated from my husband, my father, aad my mother. 

nClrflae* hicUM or, 00 aiMromt of. » romraoaitj or iiwnttoD 

43 . rnlian^ms nTls' «orjj^i 5 ct»a«i 4 mnn simaori jgerra smoisiaraj: 
««»ai >6 <3»<3< <o>osmon4 CaJ3a.o To-day I noticed that your 

house is tbsra, I aha!) joat go aod look at it. 

K m> to-daj * "O' 

BO. ayo J} olculcfc o.ioddaj.'Xiao oo^l gn^aocroo «n 

OjjOio «ra>o«4 cjcsl ojU'.<Yn aroodXio Now 1 do not like to lire 

in this room sod to sleep there at night; I shall look at tho itom afterwards. 

e<fl ra*«j ln««*d of no*m*« »• (nay lay: no^ltlgbi; 4.003* eteop 

<«oa,rr» ( oorafl, pr-^)j odlarm a-Unar*.. arr*** UMa (imM"i. scroni', 
iaiton ) ; *• «:oo*. 

§72. Ex. 46 represents » new Mxlajalam, called the Social 
Case. It is formed by adding *>3 to the stem. If the stem ends in 
cn, a or n<«s the couaor.aut <a must be inserted (ctubs^vb, ajiiwj, 
na»93^i) y just as in Genitive, Accusative, and Locative. If it ends in 
g, a ia omitted and «r* is substituted (*»iqj 1 *to 3 , aflgle-nij). I 11 a 
similar way we form the Social Case of Nouns ending in aw, where 
also ra is inserted and a before *13 omitted (§ Gl); hence o««ais®a>*, 
aoam:? etc. Nouns ending in a consonant add to their Nominative 
Case we^a-re*. o.nmj etc- This Case ia especially used with Verbs 
of “speaking, informing" etc.; /. e. —>* «i)am s mta wt U n 1 »b*u *;*»» 
-ia fut . fliB 8 iaao| (ex. 39) s^aano^ (ex. 29) show a form, which seems 
to be similar to this Social Case, but it is something quite different 
from it <s>. BO, w~; (k— »; ud ajoq (w* g ITS. n, I). 

§ 73. In ex. 47 another Case, called the Instrumental Case, does 
appear. To express the English Prepositions “by", “with", “through" 
in Malajalam * 19 * is affixed to the word. It is added to the different 
terminations of the Nouus in the same mauuer as the ending of the 


Social Caw. So ire say: nm«a, asnaTinso. ofiai 

myd, asacutniat, enmim;*, «o^<nirJ, ajisniiroT* «tt. 

§ 74. Ex. 49. 50 give 3n opportunity for completing what we hare 
begun to learn about tho Accusative Case under $ 40. The ••a* of tlie 
Accusative is affixed according to the rules laid down for the Social 
and Instrumental Cases. Thus: «n aae®, on**®, am-.aSictn, 
msvo, msj, neoaia 

I. As to the way in which /he Accusative or Objective Case is em- 
ployed, the following examples will give die necessary hints. 

X. ofl unmwjgrwee •n 1 c»crri'Oflr«n. (TbMtliiH Uoaour fitlar I nil nolbir). 
Although the Nomiuutive Case is generally thought sufficient to express 
the Object of a senteuce <»spnSn mi^ a®s-*»). Transitive Verbs arc fre- 
quently construed with the Accusative, especially if the Object is a 
living being, ami ought to be pointed out. 

C. Hi art onvajl^j (isttc) ■ ttfi ^is.-nxcivn (iobMtir.ui~r) 

rmo (oluj) j lOe^feiO (4lMpl«) aJtniaioo (■oawrcfil.q Mlo*>; tm-.rt 

««ooi«.t« (yof-MuWm (•miifiiin **0 fee). »suajl«i. utamfij*, oocemi 
.4W, (tabu «■■*), «|Q ni, pr,» (rntit) and other Verbs take the 

Accusative. Not so in English and German. 

3, anr* a r.f 0 .. 1 O (TU» diUin *«to> *ml sang o iow); *c art 

ao3rne,B a>ua«,t)> ojo»j (Hu ipnln naaj word*)! m<nii o«rto e&ao <H« 
did III* bis MUTM); am «mj> tutqjl^ (Ho snored ■ -ouitd). The Object has now 
and then the same or a similar meaning to the Verb and may assume 
the form of the Nominative Case (Cognate Object). 

*. ««« » u cun<r»ah (Sin ones sin. • blind i*>o>. The Verbs 
“make", “elect", “appoint", "declare”, “crown", “proclaim", “know", 
“consider”, “teach", etc. are construed with two Objective Caws (just 
as in English and German). The person in question takes the Accu- 
sative Case, the other Object the Nominative Caw. »rt «no«<r> *> 
mt<vx») a.Ta^in.y (l rcprdrd hm w ■ Un„. This example shows that 
“as", "for”, "to be" before the second Object in English (as a kiug) is 
rendered in Malayalam by (see § 144). As to the Postpositions 
following the Accusative Case, see § 220. 

IL The Nominal ire Case. 

I. OiirrfWfrt “tfQcOaiU “13 oa:«rw» =■-» (7hf Uodpcn W 'hr 

b.ihroMt). Tb« Subject (amrftaMorfc) takes the Nominative Case. 
shows that the Nominative form is also sufficient to denote the Object, 
see 1 , 1 . 

X. adlaTiw (npoatm* oco.iafB>iai«™ (On ibe Iho Bratusum nre 

Cols), anaiirtn «<ub a-ataoinirt m-i» oj/nl (H« wort his wuu to l>t Mui). 



After tho Verbs: “to bo", “become", “remain", “seem", “to be culled" 
the Object stands in the Nominative (as in English and German). 
About ai^aTi employed in connexion with most of these Verbs •a Qi '*o 
®3i>jWOfo»liiWr>> rboc «rt my coaiolutloi), See L 4 and § $7. 

8. CO'j'L fitter cc OBQjOflta II Mvtd fttAjcd) Id bli boon* :’or 

threw “:o^> >TOQjrA q (Day and nljfht bo dhcr9««Mi* TbCSC 

examples show that tho Nominative form may also be employed ad- 
verbially (especially for indicating a duration of time). In the same 
manner tre say in English: “lie siag3 day and night”; (Ace.) “She 
comes here everyday”. 

■•otIob) ajaa? shows that the Subject is sometimes omitted just 
like the Copula, see § 28. 

As to Postpositions construed with Nominative see §220. 

§ 75. The two Verbs (ox. 17, 49) and ajocq* (or rv<U and 

<i^n+) show that if the Present Tense ends in a$rro. the Past Tenet 
ends in (flftrftyrni, wnf*oq ; <uo<%ai», <uoc»g). 

KXEftCJftfi 1, 

rcr u*i it t» i» s «4aibW. by poUon, pwn will t« rftmt TUoosh knowl* ;*© 
humility » ChlMgh humility vo/thic***. ihmujli *oribin*w rich**, thronf* rlob** charity, 
tbrtoffc ohority hAppiaen. We bare *©t isi ti;m. Bow beautiful hit Ueth arc! 
Did jot dial your noth tbit noroinr* Call the butef Ko cot mj bAir. Toll the 
o*t*cfcbt to <»aio hsce. Toll tho cobblur to road «/ *bow. Toll It* toi’or to noiul 
thi« trnt. From th * akin of animate »c riuko laathar. Hu did aboot tlm Aog will* tbit 
juo. TO you V*ild tV« bowse with •foot** Ko, only with briefci. Fill ap ehh bote 
with otoTveo ami tend. 


aaoncnA avxdSWai ^ aTia&mjr* o^«-j oTit&>. aflm®*, oTWxa* 

trned esK/^oi, 3«:0^0 3;<T u’tn., wmoitii o®>, 

o^Dri |«i f TOOjnrin il« ttVssa oj. DioT^tj oj^ 3.a^acF 

Mftr*we*Doa> aftfW . cMwy araojir6 

OJO. *a«o <r\m>*ajx6 (nyn»4mv>) (AiweUbVjWrmg) 

«xjo. aanawroamsg q: *£jKBo rmr««fwa>3(* ajo. **j&x^g* aiMft* mu> 

TOajfW mn»® eo ioj**rvA:<rj aiu^ajjy. aT>g *u*a»<gfc 

oojJf:! (Eft, 


<•^*8** oi/imspj. «* 




tbu hoiM. 


tb4 P Ai». 








to - 

«° . 



«f . 



af<s'<» In 

th# how. 

'n i 

lift i 


olljiWPna fr™ , 

atfa>‘»4rr^7T) fnrc 


Lot. Dal. 

a?lf"iuia» Inin , 




aM’*n:^ with . 




<b r i^fr»t* bj 









06 Sim 





CO 32 















id an from 





Lor. Dal . 
















Ninth Lesson. 

What shall be done or has happened successively. 

51. a(j)*oio ajU^trgi gioa^awan} <U|)«ici 6 q aiQ^sjMfc 

nwjajg^jo aaia^j? Tike my oano nnd dust ray clothe* "<U! Did 

5 on hear? 

L II. Hj cane tnlrcn, It vllk ay etotlc* well beic! 

-2iUS Put Trntr of »|5<» (■19«taB, •OSfalf'l. •a5ij'«)i SA^H, 

It Ibt Pmi Ton«e or Port, of 4-B^’n uni llko ibo PrepNltiO**, *br% -«iiV ia EojUsb, 
beio; anotbor Ia«tto»i»»t«I nw, It (an t- rn|iloy«l la.lml of In Iht trusll- 
t«i of Chapter Tin. 

Wbtl w th# S&guUr of aijr^ao:** cn^Olp Aivtrfc of cnftj (veil), #ef $ IH. 

52. a^= a^TjcOt^o ojrro a_)orojlcA o_mto1 

t&ajsjcs Fi™ «r eight men shall ooae here and \rorL in our compound. 

caacound; work. 

53. o®OSo, gBKJjWvAn so=>9occid« oa-iioii eiMiflas .=)«y^a« 

HG&V.3 daisaW Bey, go to the *cb-»lmaatnr and ask 

whether hie wife is better. 

12*5; U n font of tMrm la com of Inferior*, vfccre you «*jld bio <tT l i 

a#m. of no In? of tb? Verb 

i* u»»U It* iV P/twils/M 'mu of* $ M; Tlor. *ht« § 0 «. 


54. roccnoskro eroaxii #nJ(TO acraJgj nen£j«0>r«)i3*o 

Odfit <ua^<o.«iacn o a3aa^®ac»«| «n<0>3ire He went to the forest 
for hunting atxl killed nino harei, two hogs, and three deer. 

!t.3(b:^ hunting; <&:% ©ajto, to *o, <QZ9f± (boro) 

nod «** (dosr i taotllf Llui i ft lo fcrutng tie Wurui to ell tfoon# e*i*ft* la <i, fa or la 
rb preade4 Vrnlouff ro«ol: /W> fab, ftor. cfkM«*<fc; Pt*r. — Mrityov* 

*>•:<**, Ml. 

§76. These tour examples introduce a very remarkable form of 
speech in Mnluyalam. 

■OT® (51) (52) iWl (53) o-u"* (54) sootu to be Only the Past 

Tenses of the respective Verbs. Still these forms are not the general 
Past Tense, but the Adverbial Past Participle, a form similar to the 
Adverbial Future Participle we have heard of (§69 eiljjy*, aoygajwb 
etc.). The first Verb aajsa expresses no: the full aud chief action 
aimed at. What I want to say in ox. 51 is, that my clothes shall be 
dusted and to manage this the cane must ho takeu first. These two 
actions are two parts of what is considered to be only one perfor- 
mance. the first Verb expressing something which must be done for the 
accomplishment of the whole action, suggesting the instrument or mode 
performing the design of the Finite Verb. So tyfu/t those men can 
take up the work in the compound (ex. 52), they must come here first 
of all, etc. As in Malay aiam the first Auxiliary Verb is considered to 
be a kind of Adverb («o®, a«o cto.). the three sentences are Simple 
sentences. In English and German we want as many Imperatives 
(or in the case of assertions as many sentences. No- 64) as actions are 
required and for indicating that they altogether form one complicate 
action, we combine them generally by "and" with the final command 
(or the Finite Verb ex. 54). Thus: "(jo and tell him"; '-Geh und sage 
ihm"; Mai. «^o; having arrived here again, I saw his 

letter (eafls* oJo*. ^ao\ nut ip<uer*o - « *o»); "Hier angekommen, 
land ich seineu Brief vor’. "tXB&vti; loSavro aji Ait they came and 
prayed to Zeus”. 

§77. nfJirra OoiaaW (ex. 53) shows that the words which are 
spoken or will be spoken are given first, and instead of "that" in 
English a^cro joins them to the governing Verb: apeak, ask, answer, 
etc. J. f. sunocrh «aae*nfl«<fc> oX'to n-j I >a the light 

c< >or3i, id jaiut mid. In English we use either die sign of quotation 
(in "oratia recta": He 3aid: “I shall never forget this") or "that”, 
(in "oraiio obliqua": He said that he never would forget this). 


Exercise 1. 
flcvu aoW 

P'41. art£arf'tf»tro. Imp*'. I. atffticW 

Pail. n //• 

Fot •ffflcoW „ III- 


Pari. FUt Pari. Pail » i ^ bd \* j . 

irQdrx am. 
«&afl tt*s. 
«ftiM tb»a 


oijaTm Im job. 

*i>*oa i« * t 

«j«oai for to k*. 

dig aTI (to. II) tclog. 

Exercise 2. Jf«trd>utt*.p. 

Buy i (dole of ground for mo to build o koie. (w It)- Cine to th* g.t'k" of Hr. 
Mlllrr n n pwc of ground. WVit lo th. brnidlh and longth of it-* It If » E*rdi 
brood «•! to yard* lout- .Vro* auj t»M oa It* Hien am only tom- |»ln trf, 
n»t{o trail «nd tamarind Km. Whit dora tta omor Ilk for UK 100 Tc-mw- 

row ertalng ot » o'olork I will rotnr ltd nett* <Sai*b ©*19.10) tbo rMitu H*w you 
CK ill Iho Mtorilli to build At k.«*f btl lb. fftiplo b«lt to vrurb tu-oorrov Did 
lily Ur th« fouudilnu yutarday? Sul tu« uk-ibs, they will flsi.h li-d»j It Ibi «hun- 
ui raidy to plittor the wbIIi tad to *Mto-»«W tbraiK On wall* ore o» dry. Suit 
•ohmlld »u upotoir* The wtU-ptato, ti* oran-kawa, th. Utiti, too lUga-bun, tbo on— 
bin >>ji|>;nlac lb* rtfitn, tnd <bu rtftort you ml tutelf rfl tialor. Wbomin the 
frtinti of th. doer, and »lndo»t’ ii* that* ptlUn uro*E roough to brnr tk« ml of tbo 
porch? Who Muds ibwr omr th. udi~.ii* I*t HI do-o on (O*o* -Uh G.a ) th* 
threshold. Whom will yo. buiU th* kltehta and the .tnHtf Will jou tkotoh tU iwf? 
1 inUud to tlk it. Wkorafrooi will jou get It* tIUi* Fran Calicut. With this chiwl, 
K», bauiun, tnd hwor you luted to do yo.r uorif GUI a tmltb to n»ko tbo bn** 
atd binge. Whtl w* do with tbl. lllll* hut? Rincve tad toral it up. More they 
l-gu. to cut thji .untwf S«»ll I l»U tbc untltre of time pltuhi? Here u* -tot • 
ntonam. Tbo*. roollet .hall l»t* tholr bc« tnd rejuir tbk way- Tbit w«y it tco 
ttoip. Tbtre are t emit titty b>>t and rrat. tn lb* util, fill them u? with iwrur- 


*it* aftf «n» nauoi* t^Aavagkwti.'i «*s§wfl«*o 

(*oi*n»'iB) «oaa>' 4 «o«n«©i o-o. trace® a«. wMo afltoVq* of a 

ay> tj/arArror ma in} *naujj a©>* o.'lo'la^i owjtu^ Octr* irflao/t . eo 
aCin ajft) «*=&y> l^aaitv) esetof .etfai cucq: eioj. oj»'l(!*o ®au. 

asorroonb (or *jtT-> aookm oDti <^»ja »a™) u^tiloirmT aq 

iy')©. moo» mvaioatmn', ffifimWl “»>* ot»j atom. 

aflg ojimlirfljj)* *ai»«<n« ovo?!<rt*w* «l^jH awntof o^SflOifc mtoa unfl a s 

<S3>&' ffcai fiimpai corral qjkto (C^od Pros.) Qyxow ca^ji\sj*» t?<n> 

o r :eto otb«*). jjww«6 *&**» epOi*** e^t* io^'/^c ( 4o«n, 

*^33**^ «W^*cb fcctrjeaftsT pj. a<x® a^Oj 

ramocgo ftcw.otro^o az:aiz:a>^c & f*£uma^c aw^tofo XT*i 

a>jrflq*.*«s<3^ «rr>a»cflcj»f*SQp> *«a\a>*<to «&ajli*f 
««*|* oao^xft t?n 4CU*f4aca« «u*a> <area*kh) Q»rw>? caarilftjtf 

tqw cocl*^ O^OMY? ov^rfr^f cisrt> go W t*1 •»*<*#<*« 

aLifttfloVaao* atendi rqo**» *>iu A*5*a»? <«W> cmdkn a>*» 

oasga^b jtsaTtarr*. «3 CuW*<tO»jd (« 3a£pfr») oTtjo? pfti^^>*V*frfhra. 

®o jQci;aj>^o o.TiUo Aa^ccrq of) *annl asaT^orroocL:? 

G4hz+*~%y o ^lAdioo^o jaT*:coD'lftgo) t>«>f*CLcrtb *»3 . ms^ato aflrfW. 
*AirfVa 1 <r©2 Aajifl^ crPyotpA***' 

*fegOAnb otiA asconai^ ma cui;^<<» nrb *«** 

aiqj ja>«mj. ^aftaoA nci<**<ao^*A> •apfO 21** Odfl «*TOdfcP$! pp <^« 
mcc'lfto Affaom ^>i^>aT u atfWta 04^ oj;cai|« aTkaacja *mzj 

Av (»6»£ftxmx>) rt»>Tf thoscm. 

ExtKClSt 3. 

Word* ax* phrest* »•*) (1 eounoxlcm with tfotuT->*mWoy. 

T* bouum «ct O* grotiiii) far bmitdit* a l«ii« 

AOffl ttSWX*. 

Tn ills 4 Wo Tor Safins rt faaodatloa 

ai£V»*s a'qo. 

To Uf a fc*x/Utico 

To ralto a fn&iiiUilciu vail 


To quarry »tnnn« 

*** eekjrcch. 

To droit itaMfc 

*?4 *-a>qS*>. 

To make hrfckt 


To Vara liiui 

OJ2>3v a^pik 

To slake lime 


To »hv the tiwtor 


TV> col timber 


To plant the plank 


To }Ui t!u* fritwa 

© 3 *. 

To bore 0 idle 


To ft)t 

<• 6I0 «n«a>. 

To drlvo it a nail 

oi^oml osoa*. 

To pit on tke rwf 

To Joaw dat/M ibo cr>«-birt 

A^>3A«:<» ftOC.*. 

To mall on lie rafters 

ac'ift { ajg'Usi) a>j»r.^h. 

To t batch tlx roof 

•«3 + «S* f «fe,C4» $ll«. 

- 49 - 

To I0» II 

To piaster tbt ■’■111 

To "klM»i"b 

To fti'rn tie bamboo not 


oja*fc <»a_toa"oi) or smrafl 

Mlftft 4 Qdi. 

mav'Ji a*vv*. 

TIk w* n <»icli *»k*o) 

To r**or# *ml p*Vii!d 

'll* door franc itanii obliquely 

Pot II etriU$kt (horiKaUT) 

Tbf CMilivg (*oof In 4 nliro Wu», ureS is 
4 nor# rt»»> tis lower s «1 It so If. Rnl*? (it) 
TU ebtoam *Ut cff. Fill It op *i*in 

ajojA ^OfroIckiKDl. 


^ 6 » a.*r©*ajjafl« aajxnfW. 
Affi:OP ft»S<M 4 jMfl. 4 **&d». 

The iwn (refttbf on It* pillar* of a var- 
Hailib) U too loc* mVi t> be 


Cot of | of » Ml (00i k31 S Js itolltr.) 

Tin ri£{*»Uim Si toot 
Pet It icrA'<ght 

The oinw hiT# lev#** tUmnUtu. I UU» 
tboio a little 

F.ea»vt aad rcpl** tbe tllee 
The pillar to elopts* 

Make It npnglit QtoryAadlooIarj 
OonpctM the How i II ! tie xure (by beat- 
in; ll) 

or>i%o»ifo nflrpe'lsetiis 

rnifl «•’'*»«»* «rfW. 

03 :«;<a. 


BO dwdujbI. « 0 JXfliW‘. 

Bt«fl «s®. 

dart or ai>4K « 

frfW olr> ndSo Bgn» (aoSW). 

55. ,»:>a aidml ®AOffrnQioa<A oirrnW^acma^ ojo Tell toe 
baadyman In *« lUe band; read;. 

lit. 7ba knllicV. baring (bran) lied ibo coach in brio; Is Hit Uudjoac tell. 

:.ogo> (*»jn, aai®!, teji) Mad, lie- The *ofl oS«0O<l4 hh»m •Jeer’, ou «hit 
bM lo do »lth rooethlsg. Il rorrespjadt lo ti* Enjliih 'duo* *f*r>d to irsrt. In 
crier to form o.iiei for d iff (real cr»fl«i«n. Tit. Qjrd‘«.nvf> oae »ho not lo do wlti 
Ibt OiOul, aimVotbu Is do «1|U week In (tui.l, eoeonteaiorO *lib Iht aoecitfl 
(bsoi*. a,nrra.i(iob -ilb lie ©oil (hi.-. j ilerefore — USoorcr. wolj). 

56. sroooi OA3$(M>eO| OaJiCDOgjoio woojarn Ain* When I wen: 
lo Calico!, I ww him. 

OaUoit it Ik. Kr.flUfc prono.d.lioo of MotfMna (Ben-«.lle, Hlbaorbarg) ( Stjodo 
uian. .whwTj II It pal »! lb* end *f i bo Adretblol Haltnet, Hit fora a*ttf'ia>i| 
ieres MnAMn^M or «oeJ)»ar.>iO>a'a» . 



57. aroaima eougt. ojog !ixr*^acD<JgjO<ho 3Wa>ah ffltocAo 
cogjo QJ»| s>W<Jh.3§ caa©«)a)<oT|lagj'' When ho was nine or lea 
years of age, di>l bo aoi leave hi* country and make a journey to the South* 
In Sfalaja)ftai*er* bM bo omlttiJ lurs. aJXjjg a gt % joon of Ilfo; 03 '» fro® 

» joiita (•«. »l> fro® tutal It tic P«t Teua cf art hlnealf, Q«n. ami') 

PBfiorU Prcooan. <wej» ioudItj 1 , kloploinj W HBOj Mng; itoMal .jimo i apse. !a»»«: 
ojV», <xH|, qTvi oHj = Ad-wbUI P**l Pwlkipt. (.«. &1. GJ. G3); «o« MnU; 
C'ni—i j iimul of naar'.-ioidr to t>o with; aisat miUi (euateeg to «bo owth) ; 
<sTue» out (oEhMaocQ t» Ike w*t); aj^lnoKi va < to ti- w«tl>. For 

ew { IT*. II, 3. 

§78. To indicate the succession of two or more action* or occur- 
rences the Noun o-uaia is employed. Though it means “time'' (•ae i )K*> 
"lit Uooj Ran 1 **' ,6 ’* tiln *i «*«aj**> tbm n»"; *t ■ root time, for th« 

flm tin»), it is used like the English “when” or the German “als”. 
Therefore ex. 5G literally means: 1 to Calicut gone time saw him, etc. 
Agaiu we see <§ 76) that an English Complex sentence (when 1 went 1 
saw) in Malayalam forms only a Simple sentence with an Adverbial 
phrase; (in the to Calicut gone time). But for the present we may 
consider »us« as n Conjunction and as the Malayalam equivalent for 
“when” or “as”. 

§ 79. The Genitive » o-br> (ex. 57) of the Personal Pronoun rmooh 
is employed instead of mojurto, if the person of the Pronoun and 
that of the Subject are one and the same— (ssaoto-j in Greek). ®o-f>n 
is also employed for ooiugns and even mrftartn.f e. onm ,ao-»>o agio® 
O.tfUSyxb flOOraMfl^ Whra lh« notbor law bar chlW abr 

So whilst the Bemoriitrative Pronoun ooo.ib, *e 2 is generally 

employed a3 the Personal Pronoun, «•>■* is used chiefly as the lle/i&che 
Pronoun; “sich”, “sein” in German, one wifi .otvtto of wtf| •rrfloo to toif; 
tt*<m (Not iniim ex. 35). Hence: 

n»rb««»-f> I njiolf (ako mrn o>oim I, of oj o*n aafaril). 

of. o>x* Tiou Sfejwtf (of I CIQ47T)). 

miO bo kimuif (ooa^ti ciOTn). 

ma<) > ihft l»r?S*tt (CBOJ'-fe aOTTt). 

it (M >2 oaan). 

<nvs or en<ro c> «>rfi v</ our*i!<i» <<*•»*> o^td). 

frTUsa4> no rfc joq roorsohM (afU*Kfe 

«naj*> thmy tk*n«e]rt« ««gt>). 

«cu aoet , « < f»aj u>ot m) . 


I myself sbnll 50 thoro «»*6 onooeiM 

I lor* myaelf •qarm asxro 2 >i£*a\o*m. 

ll.*x chtuiait thjtoif <tfl <yO*<tt> oaan Ai«n*sa«. 

Ho tiiiiiolf 0004 dovn m<uc6 f*oa»lQ)e* «tc. 

5 60 . It h remarkable that we f annot say Bi&.oioi *.*0 aa^My)* 
Or *naxre <u<b OiOffgwmsgjrt., bat orooicra qjo^ Qjcojj^JCQffajOOo « C. 

Eszrcisb 1. 


afzt crssM 40^ » 5 ta &t>r> rra^o-h <a0idii*>xj$*iT>trfttA Sa-iioA. 

«naJ’«S 4 «a>«» 44 FW<i s>aHT». *>fc r>:«ia^ 

ooio c-m»ai 05 ^TnoaTbair*. onoj* asoioT*™ Acu-J^jub 
rw«:*aj>ariBwilAiajfft e^aJlats (rarita to botorn). woft imajortio (m£ag>s 

star) Ojfcsm (rojacoa) *n<X>;m (ulate) 

ajmflrolm<nT <*-^*09. ^?m<a asmj^ ir^ a^at^a* •so;*** *a> (f«r) 

acrajsT :, “(TfUwifc «rft (koV> ^jonatt ca^n nro ^xn» rrfl 

caj®». ^sT‘ wgrtv crT-wcb *a«'m from »cfl» 

to imho km»»», auuJuxcs), coo^m ao-*<aTl troa!o<r> su*:/c. i*o«*g <un 

*a .Triad ajo 2:03:0^ ^ffTcarnjctfVaifTP (d*<«lTr/). z>lz\ <Mogi> G<*uon> i<oil 
OBJ fit n>dft>JZ» of <r>> *a*x>»* ma»^o TOf 

rr^yOjp^ <ihOTf). rrvtt>Qo 0<n afkflfiMrt <Jfl^ sc/^B 

(Clad absr*; <f:H0: ftidft; *>Oqp -r tfSCftZSBld) mltTO. aiC^ a/bpid 4*5ia olfrtn 

frav^ajlftm^e «nO»ft^r *»«artt^rw>^r^. o^Sgjxk 40 ^^# 
oofrwofn^. woojA o^oa- o« 4 ^{| a\>roxr>r osCttoTi u>-i>r> t^oci 

3 i-a.iacr* •nan <t*c*a:us taagjVakA toOjoojj ojozo|. cooj^ OQjOrxca 

aj^axofi ,Tirof«« (Pinx. cf <rorrt ex. il) a*.«i ®xjj 4 <hjo CAigj. 

Ot House /«rnf Jure. 

Are there drawer* in this table? 

Who nude it? The carpenter 

Bit os that choir 

TVii ehoir has got do nms 

Who* Is the pnro «* tV« «aiy.chaiT? 

Of wbinb «<x»i aball I rioko ibis todsteod 
(ax>* Tok« hluekwvol 
Put tic bedding in the iren 
Thera aro nc< oooAgh hhrvi (of ccfeeoiiutf) 
in thi* pllloir 

gio Oj 4 j ^4 01 opens? 

an o e^b 2 tavz£m\? oausirTL 
e» 4 CX)wajtdd C«W. 

©c ^a.Tos>K^ Ciath «gj. 

a 3 A»ra<K*cn^<^TO ol^ftJ 
*»»-h®o **ld *0 2 anaisen* 

nr> 3 f A^alooo^frA. 
tfTiiHi ®ajcaltAd (skusT^^O) 

123 tr^iwcmald «a!^ (Ooifivr^ *<ujo. 



It w my bird 
Lo««r the curtmi 
TVs* vir«lr«V# it tco Ui 
White ouu U»* <o no into BJ U>» 

My ci«ck ii tco Uic (f«ft too f*Ji) 

WVb»rnni! empty the b»fVt« nnd pat 
•wythia* on th« low 

«*Q OJ|,«f* ftngjja «i® teV&tffC. 

C' OSjjOa-l^l «ouj1ftj ojaDs>o««<na. 
^ooj.1 SalO<* aJW1«VtT«8*™. 

■a**o •a^l*ireo ( ojo Sid] aieaill^ ira 
ate* nan.-.aolr» meaur*). 

“oiall! <T»16 o/!jj < 4 «u» mlsiQi »$*. 

53 . aa>£$ o\u^u^o6nTV-ra ffiosrelaKmajyaio raou»,o»ct 7 aoo 3 » o 
al<oa^» 3 ® 03 j e a;cr)Qj 3 CiS 3 «<ccq;o Qcl^sioxgo 0101)000 i»o;t(o ajnhAri 
fiioaio fflo>0oJ3®ej afn^oolfl^ When Jeans came down frombenen, he loved 
the kings tad tbe beggars, Ibe ricb end the poor, the great and the publicans 
(sil l alike. 

Xen. al^oorcoT), ainairt, a«)6nb, OieTIwair*, 

J\i« Ptirt(tif>U of »r>*e<* (iflK'i.d). Bnofin, ftnoji. It ll «rU.nt 

that thli fnm of tb( Verb » a kind of *dr»rb, »i It euggeits tl* outfi la whitk Joiui 
rami, nn<l to It It traatUWJ Iwet by “ 4 eei" In Rnellik or «S*rab“ to Gorman. (3 t« 
a»J lt».| 

59- smoni <uflaV»lqej»fla ttuoaoni ayulojOgjO&o a^ooio < 3 » 
a^aomos tra® aoU-ejo oaj^jnnmcno ajosrorai V’bea I intended 
to go to church, my father said to me : ‘'Never do that”. 

oaiiji' 5 **® = (*•" S «•< i* 1 ). 

60 . «mco6 go iMOEiirnj ogjorml'QC.j ioOo tn^trahgl^jic aaj6ia>< 
|la.jto agjacro rfsccnaxii ereiulo 9 airrotoicro When I reached thii place 
boy* and girts tad eoaie there to see me. 

§ 81 . Besides the Plural ending in e«, «•*, «« (§ 60 ) there is 
another termination for the Plural employed for rational beings. It is 
the affix ®«o* in a.tffcfc, aionso*, a®*,*) in the same manner aoast, 
«otu*) aaajrb, to i>b; guein vS, KpiBim-t; o'.jjt etc. In a similar 

way a more honorific kind of Plural is formed by adding aafi as in 
ajimatoerO, u»a#fc*; «>a. *»&<*>, <nj*3&“, o'"®"**; 

*9<*. •gogm.fc, «b®, To form a still more honorifical Plural 

oacufc sometimes contracted into (0x56) and are joined. So, polite 
natives allude, in presence of a gentleman to another European, in say- 
ing: oixgjaiOft* etc. 

If the final <* is preceded by <*r” as in the case of all the Person- 
al Nouns ending in <a>«xfc (ex: 05 ) <* is aimply dropped in order to 
form the Plural. Thns: ajnrfloK*, «oc*Tfi<«»*, aiertt*.*., ^ai. ie, ©ail 
aaie. Ex. 53 shows the Plurals of floiMj (4»sno)| oilasoj (&JWm) and 

fttraoj; they are: aJWM«ifto4 and «to:a*A3?a f in which case 

<** and a* arc combined (**h + *>*>= «*re^]. 

§82. As seen in §61, Nonna ending in «* have a secondary form 
(qi) employed for the oblique cases. From ex. 60 follows that this 
substituted form may also be used instead of the Locative and especi- 
ally axixnjo (place) m>M>o (time) are frequently used this way: matu 
*q (instead of cnjoiL*Jolrt) (<xvMtt»»V*). Also aj^qa (ex. 36 

from ajoo outside) and m * »qa (inside from «***). eaa-*<KTT.<tqB 
(®.*nrto tin*, <*r.<*rnn<*); rrflaiqa frtinnd; <JT>an*q* there, iustead of 
(from •woj'W). 

§88. The Perfect is formed by joining the Auxiliary Verb 
(“to sit”, “remain”, “be at a place”) to the Past Tense of the Verb, 
so that is used ju9t like the Auxiliary “have” or “habon” in 

English or German. The Perfect Tense expresses a completed action 
(the point of view being the Present Tense). The Auxiliary Verb gjola* 
is the proper word to render this meaning. “to sit”, “abide”, 

“be stationary” indicates that tho confluences of that which has 
been done will extend also over the Present Tense, /. e. «va ja qj*oi «* 
*<*n<\TfU*T» tUj hxrn optnmt tk» 4*or <«t>d it U amOf* llw 

doo? is opca ®oo*ro, qoois op* is. 

§84. We are now going to lay down some further rules about 
the formation qf the Past Tense (see besides this § 62 and 75). 

a. <reo^m and the like show that if d>acrra is preceded 

by s, the Past Tenso is cn dropped) (from rn lie, rest) 

mfcft*, This rule holds true also for «h< to preceded by o *. 

a .*>ffc.TT» (flOfr») or aor*l<TB, ajrxre to I/. 

fr. A Verb ending in the Present Tense in ^icra (*j>o»<t») or &d>*ma 
(-apMin, forms the Past in • is (*j>iq) or tm (»aa<Q, .oiwb)- 

e. Verbs with i© before ^srrn (bau**™) torn the Past in g (o*#), 
•JOjfoitffr*, izjq U iu*/rc. 

d. When the Present Tense ends in raqcro am^no), or 

in aarra (»wb,jo) ^rrw («i# a ^n,i erg* cm («a the 

Past is formed bj omitting n™ and substituting o, /. r. oora', no4 
smseit, ©•a’, »w®~. ■a"* «c. 

Esercisd 1. 






.You i. .roui 

-Ire. noxioia 

Dal. eni« 

ffdil. aoa>i*ns 

toe. «oa)itW 

AN. •»ajfi'*dm'<«B 

Lot. AN. aeo-o'lJia, 
Soe. noorJiv/s 

7s«lr. «OOi<!&* 


£*>l«a»*a »n^)jrw>»0 


t&«ji*:*ses es^raraiiis. 

^eflntnflok <n> a^a^sli*. 

fgaP^DC^YBmVm ^ ro> °" 1 < *" 1 ' 1 "* 1 

©bIW>o 1»«MD ao^TeifD>>ue«. 

QZ?<*cav* gxs^axizu*. 


DM MU ici ay hiilkoU? I mw then Itbuj, Xtulir — mail yetterdny. Th«y 
art n!<e bullotki, tndml- Hew «U are they ? !Taoj«n«fMN You most aouriiti (ej. 
it) lliun my -oil. WlitfMo thill we go thli •reamfF I woulJ like to bo to tows. 
Bo*- ofte* hare oe ;xio there t D> yon know uuUar vayF IM you know any l*f*« In 
tko low ft F I know foly tutor |0:< pstjde. Aw mof FugE’'* '"nia| Is jour Mure' They 
eone litre dally. Da yon B*** 'I 1 *" ™""y ? So, they anil wotk Is my oseijound. Am 
they oilllrt to ilii »»y M.uv luggim, <• heorms ahwit It, laid : "We da DU llko to. 
work (teeny heggen tin lioird whre *lo work to ua aial it not' 4 (is. 86) »o tboy anid) 
Tnly naay p-oplo aomt lika io work. Shall »• leere this plane and bo tk*'«? Aa yon 
Ilka <a<«e OajtOiu). Wlume t-oore ia tkre» a u Ua Utito of a rieh aaa. Lo! « go 
iaaidol Silaaai nether I We cater to Mo you 1 on roijr ;la 1 |“t»lt to rto much joy"). 
Ate yo«r ohltdra welt* They ate aw nolto »«!l <»*. 80). Wliara nr. yoar boya? 
Ikay ham (at* out and T Uj la tho eomposod (play ag'-er). UUo, go and aak *kat (k« 
koya are dolt? («Jlln trono, boy* what do, ao twit I"). Whoa M«ta name, what did aka 
ray? Uteloyr play nltoly. Did thay to* Ihtne two iretlmtoeF Taa, when they mv thou, 
they wire ttrxA |‘to thorn fair came"). We met go. Biiidyaianl go: tho handy ready 
<-te ox. 9»). Bahib, yoa newer cam hor* 1 rhtll eotne again. Wimtdo do yea. go 1 
1 it wad to go hoiut. Plena aty naay icluinta to Miuia. 1 ahall eay eo Salaam! 

Trait* toliotu 

mhroOi i Qeu*o oi[*^o e,«^3anP i»oeroo?) Rtnvlci m>-b maiottn eeatfloin*. 
tnm m U fMB«* atim. cmiiot oh® <naBg>iTtf (*«. &T) QatfliJ' • 
(vTk»iOi rowa mmajjjy .rnnTm«eir«. mu bod oeaioamunt «aaJloiao &i_e-~iF 
i^yrTifo ojBvntnCViiiim $.ix>nyh tngi firij. mu ut<5 aisooa" uname^ *a^»«rnv» I 
fnla^i*. SOiffoxs aiiA tnl'W-* a..«onmi!<d a<y •hf.gaca^i «D"la*o?t| 

last i oTl at aal3d>D iv?r- aatflqi. m"i oTIgtte clqoo •Iconu'ih o>oim < la»f 
Bca-h o'laiJiro m x3ai:j aim.™. oCtso-Ai sDQiee ajmu oa-^eHanSaj!) _BS|i 
OOQ-*, ajo<tulr* ajmfi *i,5unrt. am a, A an® «»i^fiD»aiif ojoi ■lota 

■Mftto «n g io.aHj:do •lunil a ugirti e*ae<liOe SWijp^w" •a 1 ® hjo-o*. q_oj wag. 

noen". statist omg^j. mu »o fmanidwo o-’g woe-vtt^ 1m>« 

*^T»gjF Bd)f* *iJ>»ai. itiij m*at»s o.‘l}P <aoi uiimiaetiVi ofij *ti an. mu 

Siojtfvt iiEtie mtw. atza fr nilaspe oavitri aixx. <109. mmiM o«*o 
pud. st'a^a «cl:o^o mia ^onaj £j. irfks 

^05 •a'wqfWOi ttfjfilS' »»a* ojr^B ajomil* fl«'l«»iTO. mo, ea>™ 

®o^>* *aaa oai^ms m<ra amsrfSa.1 sam o-migiiih m^am^iaA 

rr^> aa’l»m>. e-.Q o ! «n jj 6 aij lord’ mj:^’a:na (} 81) orjlai ? nolo 
•bojA aoi£g" *«aigji& Oi.ig'i^. m*»a> Suiaojl o^d^Um®, a«d! o*al 
eairvniit ani^f qomi f*lo»u,o n«>oo^ i»..t oTlr*! aiiac. tro^j 1 

«tunrn» r <oif> of^laciM 8«ji<Li»-t> eni’Vfcao aujjg eeioeam 
cue** «jOMM»a. aoiM o^oa*.. au*i»t 

Tenth Lesson. 

Succession of Tim© (77. TVirf). 

01. 033*301 0wqj«o4o oraojcrw q >aoo dd«o 

ojdco^ irfflcta When tlie king died, his e:*n became king in hb stead. 

lit Th# bio* i\l 4 & vW, *f hits (lift MO lo liiw in till tu *4 Hug Uetair. 

aJithOo Adr«rt Vitu Ditto *>t with Gcoltlrc os tho Es;lhb "iiutead" 
ffjO= «t*«ica. 

02. gP^Ql^ViOA »TOSI33s\ab\^CT3lTlft g»SS5ttlQJglflCnJ3^o OtJ) 
ajjarro^oKt aoi gernlojo a^)rrild>2 sen a«n^o sfcaocn^axrnlo^j (or at 
0 y5\^j a-ibD)? When my uncJe came buck from the bazaar, did be not bring u 
clock for iny elder sister and a ma^rla for me? 

cwgjflfc it amnlitr word few fail*? iud XA^+jn n>N»u til. u yc*og fitUr**; ooaai 
tO bimr ; aSOTl Adverb. Pi it Part, of aacq* (ruc^rm, Cdaq*) 8 TC bating r«tin»l. 
It thor* agam that tbr form :« oi *4 tofWad «d os AdnrV, few it i« tra&lkud >«t by 
“bock", b a ctulh to i»i»to 1, bat vcmm'ft cloth. 303 tl* »bwt oUrtfa 

ctf utca like cM^ <os. 41 ) or (ex. 4 S>. 

63. ojirnld.3oarpl «0.§U:c& ag^amojya&o moaiai crvjcracrno 

coil mlrml^lgjacBO? When this (mold) m»*nt took np the child, did ha net 
l«ome qniet? 

irejrruio qmeiom, tail, klinro, bmlih i •> *» •'•at U»*. 0*n. 164 nbjxt talnp 
•aa.-fa, amove* me n-lio li qa|« (if. j J*). 

§85. Beside* m* in eeo*fe, ba* there is another affix denoting 
Femak Gender, the rowel b. In general the Masculine re, is dropped 
and on - added, thus: ajimMuAatti. 

§86. Tho first example shows that instead of oiu.A also «r*©o 
maj be used. 'Ve meet with this termination more frequently in the 


south of Malabar Ilian in tho north, but it is employed also in the 
north especially to avoid monotony in narrations- Bear in inind that 
can only bo joined to the Past Adjective Participle (see § 88) 
and, therefore, the finite Verb follows usually in the Past or Present 
Tense, maw is derived from the Noun *>51* “way" (tW); hence maw 
- &,£ mat. The particlo >a signifies here as much as «M, the termina- 
tion of the Locative; thus: «uiqp«t «r«K UtIi C 4m* (see § 185. 224). 

§87. efflowh (tfirre, dr® » complete, to bo finished, cease) stands 
after •a®', the Past Tense (Adverb. Part.), as an Auxiliary Verb indi- 
cating as much as "to come to an issue", "to end in becoming", "to 
bocome ready" and the whole expression means: "become”, “turn out”, 
thus: 'toggnx*'. ofi™. 


Wko Bn* lUra? Only x .om De 1™. horf 1 ki*» bfr Won. Km 
•id got do husband ? after he/ huatuxid dieJ, iU kft hor country and came t*rc. 
mat sha do? $b* La* b * beggar w*yia*. Hm she got ahildrtfi? Hh- 
ha* r»: cbiMrcc. 1 would Like to mo Lor. 1 shall go thera, and toll hor. What la 
yonr ani»«F XarayaaJ. Tear Line* look* Tory dirty. I ora a go yr fOMfl. Will ye» 
uc< take a broom and okaa U? 1 a a loo weak for that. How do you earn yonr 11 t*M« 
hod ? By bogging. Go and do a Util* work la »h.i kiUhdo of any Europe** I I am tco 
weak to powder (outfl rice and to grind carry-pcw dor. Do yot know how w sew or to 
•pin? Hai* yaa aw dona ccoly-wcrk? Xo. It oabi yon know nocking; laaithar do 
yon wiih to loam anything. Sir? What shall I dot 


•waTteS aj^arxP &<x» arjp e>^>. a?n atk enura. macftogCftsf 
•^rrfios ana;cift ojifUMM 4®?. raiucfcAa araxij G(tJ. 

*tmaj (crol^jico) iDOiA a.rrto (ex. ST) aotoo aT^ turns. 

«oa;d) mjjq mudi ara a^u^da 

a^cresjp «ncu*fti »gj. •ao’ftflt oxM tp*g» 0.«T* «*>*> 

aoajsesf aftato OajA mjn:<a^nfl crfVferto 

nf^iad Wamrpt e<£)f*ar.<n m qP «>«© <$ra*fenk a pocr man, 

c-tf^Q A poor woman), era **** aQfqB <prftoa m«Ckra co^tfYcrflty. rrfl 

KX«ssV*n imAoMh ®»*Tn^ (*«aj *4* 

cnjcgflftMo oiftj ojetfl <496*1 

(«ara4*a», CDfMao to grind to powder) sarrftoa Aiaacl <c*tro*V* ® j^. •jjawo/xieo 

co^aoc^ rrflnTNap «»cftftv*&9f CUgj«{y»|fA & i era j > grj. affrm 
rtAismss^smvsT ; ajfcQe \jo*^:a>y rrDnrat oru 

Q! ny,<b «ai«awx|! 



Diru end Donalla iPonfc. 
Os Drew. 

Giro mj olotbia to tbo waihormai (to vui 

Wuh oil my ablrt C'lUttvaMhaa", tbo 
Sttreynoa mod* of vaahlaf; 
tuttiat to «m> by bc*tu$ aga'ntf a atoao) 
Oat oot a pair of tfowori 
Put oo a ooat 

To pat *o a Mopda (tbo abort olotb cf 
Korol* an) 

TUt Pijawa (a woman*! olotb) U pretty 
To IS* the Baotta (a woiua't bod to*) 

To »rr a Ptrtta (aoira originally a •h«»e 1 
bat now frequently uaod to daaota »o*e- 
thiig »ka tbo Xwropaan uador-pHticret, 
von by man/ aatiro ebitdrau UaldN a 
yookat aa U» only drew) 

Bay on KUoba (tbo ohort coloured flat* of 
Malabar ocoly vomtn eormjoodlng to tbo 
Mnriija cf row) 

Did you pat a hafcdkarekfcf la your jwokotP 
Bring (too) a bal 
TO t» a t urban 

To vipo a Ilk a olotb (Wwd) aftor batlif 

'Oftcibo awKiHaa 

(«®W| *:*T») 

•3*^ A f “ 

*sfl^ (©msA) (oodAii) . 



*rj agtsaj 


OQ 10 0194) 

*0*40* aTka^aHa I eo&sf 
oajowg (oa^M^ 


». Kitdfc 

To prepirt rwo 

To ml* lb* tarry 

To d real tab 

To ioaioa tho;or 
To boll an «re 

To aSash nal parcb a lib ( to draw 
How, baresaiaiD 
To grind tbo evirry-pnrdtr 
To pound tbo rioo la a nortar 
To re roc™ ttoow from rtoe by ilftiaf (am 
tfW aift, itmlo) 


•oll< (*oK») D 


qa a <B^a:arUB(9jAo < B~4>,o>ooD«*). 

iflro aioo^ (on<Tc) oaji(£)tt. 
eggstti nnft. 

frfe" MaW. 


To *lnln «B voter frca boiled rite 
TM Bsa !■ dm C-*ll> bc-lfl 
Tb* knnji *u boiling up 
Tb* MftU* of a fiih; i r.U« of ii lib 

Tu warn t'fl* bft tfr u tik 
pNp*ro ft vogoublft uurr/ 

TO ocok tU m eot 
To po»r vinegar 
To naV* 9**fta««ti 
To bftkft brofti 
To m*k* 

To aaU ta* rtftdy 
It b not nw«t 
FNjur la lome nore nllk 
DU r>a boil ihft mit« t 
Did you moll tlft batinr? 

To bdl viur 
Tbt voter is boiling up 
Ti>*r* (ft ®o bone (A*og| to tbit m**l 
A Gib cottftxftiug (many) broa 
«f flih Ifti ISU k«i In lUlftjalfta) 

To pi okle 

To gn*i (prftp»ni| cbftilnl <<ondire«at>) 

</lft ©c^nttlp^ 

s/*rf rf>rfcn e^cn>tt; — 


AJ34© OnJg^. 


-ill's 1 CfQCOCA. 

•mOiis ec^-a* B*y. 
qjiM e>*n IUAI 50. 

<u>t* ai^VusqT 

caia* oj.o^'w- inilsaJUii. 
COltflO AJBO^OT*. 

000 £h- 

«*S«a rf**. 
mfl aa^tf\x*. 

64. 0236*0 idadaj CT\j2^0Hir®Vs6 Q$k(\\}OCn ^;5>T> qJ^V&uMCTT) $>01 
kotood* qidsto At tho time Vote* lired, tLexe ruled a king, who hated the 

Lit, M«w Urtd t:»e Is the IirftftlitM hating ft king (£lo Ii.iaUtu huiftUir 
Kdarg) fofttrnftl. 

ajod'fti, ojonoeTO, (ufinao bate, (Xoum cu*>); Oj>yn* Ojiyrrs, Qji«w, 

to gororn. 

65. dira 2ft 2»c'iy oosnuo ^ssuo naliloraio (Q.f'.o^lci afro gjOS 
aol.o^OaiWttl After tbe mother bed dW, one of the ebttdron too died away 
on acooont of grief. 

66 . ms>n 6 f>dh§lA«a ^©350 ori^QotjMcm sioa^oi la&ngeojiy 
galdjoUcvuD^o moidfe oifiOo a^rrviroo fisrooAo When the father who 
love* ha children rer* much, dice far away, they will haTe groat grief. 

la HI. aklMr.n «ay m«ah krrl.f hll.r f.r •••»* will Jlo to Ihoa gr»c grief 

*111 U. 

§ 88. Another way for tilling up the want of Adjective* i* pointed 
out in ex. 64 — 66 (efionai, crflji, This form differing from 

- 59 - 

the Adverbial Participlo (Past Tense: Put Tense er^^olytc*) 

is called tho Adjective Participle. Ex. 04 and 66 show the Adjective 
Porta of tlie Present Tense (uumd, oWn), ex. 65 one of the 
Past Tense (•»>«). The first Participlo is formed by dropping a of 
the Present Tense: tho Adjective Part, of the Past 

Tense in the same way, if the Past Tense ends in a: okbI^, oiolu: 
(mmsob, no*9(w«: if tho Past Teuse terminates in u by augmentation of 
», the vowel <ro is added (*o«n, n», ^*1, smart*). But ir a is 

preceded by ®, the a is simply dropped, thus auica). auaj mart, 
a}<a. (In prose the Future Tense is employed only very sparingly 
.Ain- *»».) Just as tho Adverbial Participle mjnires a Verb to con- 
clude the action, so the Adjective Participle wants a Noun for complet- 
ing the thought 

These Participles are not ouly employed like the English and Ger- 
man Participle of tho Present Tense (a living father, the shining light- 
das betende Kind, die sterbende Mutter), but this Participle takes the 
place of all the Relative Adjective Clauses in English, introduced by a 
Relative Pronoun in any one of it* case*. Tlius, “the man who said" 
in Malayalam: "This having said man” sg oun«o vd<%. "The man 
to whom I spoke this, died" means: “I this having spoken man died" 
«*k 6 SB **>•• *4<fe "Tho friend whom tboa lovest, is ill”: "Thou 

loving friend is ill” <rfl iiyiAaaii ^r» Thus, the 

Adjective clause has becomes mere Attribute of the Noun; and this 
accounts also for the non-existence of the Relative Pronoun iu Malaya- 
lam (see, however, § 253. 262): 

a. I taught lb* ivf ream that mu, tovt H*J bo aaa il 

b. 1 »bo toogtt the lortf U>a lb»l mis c-J c>li^ BO *>AQC<a "Sir®. 

c. 7h» man froo *hon 1 bought the birae moj-ft «jo ounal® «o 

il. TUt hunt irhloli I bought from that aian aairb aij STJ»1>3 a.n»(la* gj-. *aVi. 

This Adjcctivo Participle is further of great use for providing us 
with the necessary Adjective*, which are so seldom in this language. 
Besides an (see § 54), which is nothing else than an Adjective 
Participle, especially <bib;s», ai^Acrn and ma- 9 . 0 , the three Adjective 
Participles of the Copula «*»«., are affixed to Nouns in order to form 
Adjectives, f e. 

Thla wlokol in on <Ul a wiokad ooo tiling w *0 

i!U max) boa klltod him tuorn wm. 

Ttua Idto oblld till, ax MU «« b«u, <1,1. m ^ mlAan a , mQ&Q. 
oblld) n» cal a twliug 



Just as is used for tlio formation of Adjective* so er^ca) (the 
Adverbial Participle) is used to form Adverbs, (see § 152). 

§ S3. The English '‘after” may be expressed by ocoamo. It is like 
•ojj* and «aoo joined to the Adjective Participle Past Tense (§ 78. 8G) 
erfl* au>su. Originally it is a Noun like oajxh, but it is also used as 
an Adverb ("subsequently”, ••afterward*’ 1 ). After a Noun in Genitive it 
correspond* to the English Preposition "after” (nach),/.e. aosmoriWihn 
COBaOJO n^l U>>3«fCO "flu ilMlh I lion •hall ««•; fl»3ifnWnio OOUaWO "fer t>al. 
In tbo place of tlie English Conjunctions Nouns like and bn»i 

are added to the Adjective Participle »coa»). 

§ 30. Though «i»«» and *>>n are affixed only to the Adj. Part. 
Pust Tome, ouodo may also be added to the Adjectire Participle Future 
Tense. Ex. 6G. faai^a - erfW + wh.» « .uni aio. «ie. Tho 
Conjunction "whilst", introducing a Present Tense, is rendered by 
nvZfoo and similar Nouns in the Locative, or by cte®> combined with 
the Adjective Participle iu the Present Tense, fi. naro* ojtimm'nx 

luion Cte»(rf m,h cnj«ro>n''af.o'le*i’w lie •»i<i w, «hll« «• "’ll 

la ihe city. 

§91. ur^<o,u tSioeio oiajc^ m ajo<3»3 <aoi!io Aoerroo. This is a 
common proverb meaning “That which one has doue in his life time, 
he will seo when he die*”. 

Here «!&*• must not be rendered by "The timo which shall 
be" a3 usual, but since the Future Tease often expresses a habit and 
a repeated or continuous action, it should be translated "The time in 
which one is habitually active" jjum the time in which one will 
die (oimoo, ana*). 

Somewhat startling for a beginnor in Malayalam, are sentences like 
the following: 

si® £g$ oj*9»‘io ajnl^*0ra»io Wroai.i -ooiw (Jui) -Un lb* toy piuokw 
or th» Bootn, iim; raw ii| fli^slacn eiADsrr‘o>tnocnj3^o aj$o8o6 maej 
ASKJ Jul when be bro>(bl Ibe ib.ip, four SlDfru tow il an ih. way. Here 
the Future Adjective Participle does neither denote a futurity nor any- 
thing like a habit, but simply indicates simultaneousness of the first 
action a>»e«) with the second (<•<»»); here we cannot use 

* H io» because this would imply, that the men saw it only a/Ur the 
flower# had been plucked off. whilst tho sentence as it stands, conveys 
the meaning that the men saw the boy in the very act of plucking off 
the Bowers (cf. § 135). 


oj 6 IiO». 

Adverb rail, rail 

•XJO l 

* „ Fat. 

Aitf'ct. Fart. Pres. <xafl+ mv 

„ . Fast ^iO\ai. 

, . Fat. woW. 

or* **<£>*>:«* 0*^ 1 ' ea* £ij>i2«T>-6 ojjaa'rtfrTn 5 '. <aQM9 Barb O^m’ 1 fitr« 
Ob<x» cnxfc #roa*“t> ora a*f^d»** &>&> ajoc^‘‘ oftcm^jj 
•unA 1 *. Onfisflri «rQ *):}*» rb QjVtf^: ffMfi*** ojoft** 

(boot «tO» *oa«» la) ottrfUa^ *m«»to0^»4ft 

4«:uA «_f»croc5^ ao® 14 * g-T» o«u>®a^Hfc aj^a>trfis4 ul aura 

waiQa«*t) aJWXqj' t*V toa&wm'h afkrfo wwtjOm aA* - ^. a«Ma' ' a<vr*» 
•aj**"* *rftaW** a-ir>^cm oSUiarflji 1 * •middWl*"*. **>lt 

«A>rv ojmmmokAo 111 oj«» cdr*™ 

67. oorWVno^ *0tto) d> cnlcjoa \;<*i o^jar> aaj©Dc» &3J ttojjjatfro 
ssoio <8tt34»C& ftOJ ^«r»o<sili^cro In Hnitiniparwa, n wa*honx*n 
by name ViUtun, bid an ass. 

Lil. la Hi wirwf vab ad rm. 

o^ra* mint* (10® § £8>; »u|Hny* or *S>aA n Ktubraan. 
om ; » rao®too» — fc<>x| -f + AM», *♦* § > 0 . 

6S. 9tO££A& a^ofijg^^ Cajxo oc^ia>o AtiloraKvfc ojcrn e(])#aio 
Oawcj pnVna After (my) Caihor hid got* oat, sonwboiy cirae (ml and lie 
my rice. 

“ • Br.hrjin'i rllUge. 11 ‘>->*33 -r C< 5 ‘ 1 ™ >!»•*•. U “i® oo*, « ,im 

u inutb u. atm *' D.t. on ■ rnU, luUU of Lm. " OjCMBjt* «o Ml out; 

<a-«P "jupfa** « Ml 0.1 «a . jo.raoy. 01 ©3* lo Join; ostnaMOna^k formi mo 
phinw «i>a noiu : “to tako *»n?". ,J l*iu( Tom- of t*n>o»<r. help. 10 Mrrojlkan 
•h. Uo. aitftaft* (MO 4 114) nrd oannW b. Iruolllxl Into Kn*li.b. " OlV* »bi“Ii 
m< lo eooilruol *rtb Sot. but wily wHii let. * I»tcrj««>0n. 1,1 Tlgtr. 111 food. 
1,1 (rilaiai'tfW to try ont. 1,1 a)rf)«« Ad*. Part “timing-. 1,1 ***n, 

oli Ullk (Iiif. of *>a(» 10 k> link). ‘" OJimjOi. rMlIty <* In mlhy. ul bU o«n, 
mfinira, ililftriog froa Bsaiordo. ,w 4j»ou »u»oi llko Uforo. 1,1 Jtke. lM oilou 
ifao 1 kink, noon. 4nx«il»'sj 1 *n:©.T + *fe. " , ojto, frnid, di«it, 

(0-6 dotel'tr, U«. ” Any oot, wboMor.r (m. 3 137). Win not b.5t>» oTkojJljl 

69 . fira&TSMfilS iZ Alio 3 V®§/PflY 3 ) dSgldKQ 0 ^ 31^0 a® 

woio ©^slcoaido slaiomo^ &sl ssrwoa^mcrriW) When oar daughter 
was delivered of her dmi child, my wife mu not allre. 

oe^loo^b (from no.o » bind) ike, wlo i. U>«»4 (lo l*r SbiSiioJ). 

70. qo q_)4tti 1 jp0 ^_paio5|0 ©aji^ rnWAo aoboxo ©rni Aol 

cncf> &5I ahon-nVyaoft ai^oiooft asWffl® After yoa lm«e dons 

thrt work 90 often, a it necessary 'to show it once morn? Do not bo Uxr. 

i \*LpSjj^9 tin#*, w mity tin**; AftfViMl onu»; c4\i» t* V * Imj. 

§92. Ex. 59 and 70 show that besides oai*™ there is another form 
of prohibition, namely, Mg) or aroois-m affixed to the Verb. The 
expression stronger than »a« means "ought not to be”, "dare not". 
Thus: n-rt&mia* {Jo dc< ham). o*-»I««o««t. (Jo no. nU) etc. It is contrary 
to oaiimo and may also stand alone: co 090,0. awo owrfi tm. 
mm wighC me 10 Haw ottiof woitc (860 197). 

§93. Ex- 67 shows that in order to form the Historical Tensct 
of in (or sc*) wo resort to the Auxiliary Verb ra*"» and by altixing 
this to *<r* we are enabled to form all tbo Tenses necessary. Thus 
fi6rB3d.o» (exist, to come into existence), asrsjcol («$* o-V-a 
t«w»iWo Th® (n».*r i- tkt koum »n «s> fiowirularm I bad ■ ohild), 
£ 61713 dHc (aJiojirorttiriVio t^wdllKO ca .«.!«« How will b* roJcmpJIaa from .inf 
mitia ojt»o oo»m«ai. gaamm, Th.j will fc«T» noti joy>. In the same manner 
ftffBlflflT, ftCttl!®, OtC. 

§94. In §83 we came to know that the Perfect is formed by 
affixing to the Past Tense of a Verb. Ex. 60 and 69 show that 
for the Pluperfecl the Past Tense of Koto. c»™ i* employed, just as 
in English "had", in German "hatto". Thus: «tt»rfUP«<J» bad fc-wd; 
i^d?«o'!lBco bU bfoim- aojry. «l=. 

§95. In ex. 68 we came across a Noon ending in <i (o«uq Hm). 
Noam ending in q do not follow the general rule, laid down in § 74. 
We should not say a«i*fV&*o, lai^firo etc,, but as in all oblique cases 
q is changed into oq we should decline (something like tho substituted 
form on of Nouns ending in «m), hence owxwfTecio, ««uorfVm, a*)»xf.«m, 
OauodY*, a*codVmt*. After the same manner: cnaq belly; *oq rc*«; 

Vitaq be ui ; itfcroq «oU; oojjjfq oil os ; «>xj young touting*. 

§96. Ex. 69. 70 show that the Participle may be used not only 
as an Attribute (the Adjective Participle § 88) but also aa a Personal 
Affixing to the Adjective Participle the Personal Pronoun book*, 
BsoiA, *»j) (or eg) we got this Participial Noun. Thus wo have: ar® 
lifleicw ~r a.-^iClaiaTCU* on, who 1 ot»; With = argrcfio.CT/X'b! 

wHh rg = sn^^rf'Bs'iTvg tbe fling wi»h iwoeiody ia»««; or in the Past Tense: 


tnpao'ji -f with *roa,» — 4r^oiAajTi>» and with *e a ^ 

»'V°’^S- This Noun can be declined, (Che Genitive of B - maraft 
orto etc.). As the form is nothing else than a Pronoun preceded by 
nc Adjective Participle, it is employed where in English a Noun or 
Pronoun with a Participle or with an Adjective clause ia needed; /. i. 
Tko lorlo# KM (tronoo) or h. irho Ji-i a(flfl,ai(*. [gt^rfso <0.3 ejo 

OJS* 9 * 0 «fl>3Glo AOSfXOo <Pror.) Wh»l om 44 (OaJOU®> I" >*» >im. ta 
-Wch b. um it U), «0 ihoii mo m ib. tin- 1> »h«h h- *tu di-]. In English 
the Participle cannot be made a Personal Noun, whereas in German, 
Greek, I-atin, etc. we meet with similar constructions. Instead of the 
Pronoun the Article is resorted to for bringing about this. Thus, we 
get: D*r BtorbenOoi DU Uldoul.; Pm MboccIj*?) « sXtW>TS; lho« who rant; 
s&o?stts toi; XTtofxwiivco; 6|itv rrllrasta uedUasnaio* <nxnvo*o\jVt> (Bmi 
lboi> who mri« y»mj. 

Exercise 1. 

(HUM*) &“*. 
a&-r.'.<n ir»'.-s'‘ 1 hod (iu). 

erfimn** oowna'l lion bain <«tvM(- 

fttifcll Ui« (fcLill U). 

ja-majif* for horUiE, 

aowoah »"i»l (Uis*). 



Exercise 2. 


O^^fkaBTOO.*, -<fc, —a- 


ar^c^Tto»fn>3Jom, -jiq, — rflorr. 


»r^Dl^»cmaxTo, -cfc**, 


»r^a<£4t<ma>or6n, -jus, — rfkirto. 


^ooV^fmoxrilfi, i^M, 


or^c^^Wrna^riTnfro, —tf *»)<», -alafcriW 

Lot. Dal. 

a ,^oWi axrflo sn a* , - 


^nAaiapajafncf, -®ac*, — jRamflf. 


At«Tnaj^io4, — at<4, -o"/rx4, 




a^cd'^«<m«x»M, — •«, (— 000 ). 


a-^adWwima^t, -o», (— orfb»). 

Prtunl Tom 
P au 


Ado. Pari. Fuf. 

, . P«* 

Adj. Pari. Pret. 
, , P*H 

, , F*l. 

- 64 - 


®r^io'ie».Tna<'otn, (— oalordn). 


STporTaaimajfOol, -aVd. (-noli*). 


K^ocTaumajoleti^cB, -rflebrriVm, ( -orflekrfliT*). 

Loo. Dal. 

BcmarfWnsonilaaiai, — sfi8nj«a, {— mfnetai). 


airman et* —8 an*. (*->009!. 

I a tlr. 

e^ool4»nitan!i(4, — ao*. (-noti|. 

In the same manner: 

-3. 4r$aj\aiajft, -au 
(Far tho Future Taoto m -aeoood Filin' § 868). 


Ptrfitt lenu. 

I hBT* kfTQfi 

7ho« has* lo?e<l 

to :r* •qgarfUflffaam. 
<rfl •c^soWI^Oa™. 

TUy hurt lor «4 


RilSMTfitl Tiatt. 

I li»4 lottd 


Tboft hods: feted 



• ...... " " ’ V 

Ctlt *r^oD'jT"»0"- 

Exircjes 4. 

Whet dtf yon ram* to Malabar? Thru jwn ago. Did you login nlroity ([jS«^co, 
fflSnrf 1 . a*e«>) to Imra tha laiguaga (toailf I learned s little. Do >« Ilk* Ilf I likl 
It, bU il !• eery diffisolt Did you bigtn O spook? AlMr I bo»o Unrxtd 

(MOKblng) I 1UII apeak. Sorer do that. Why not? S) you ■rill sorer leant to speak. 
What shall I to? Heariog • »ord you null Iry to m it (fyaatcrfW). Farther the 
words which 70 read, yoo non UH l> year talk, you 10a ll.ncrfwih (CdO) I shall 
da Whfa to you go to alwp* At 10 o'elasl (hour attriV®*). AfWr h»*isg taliu 
your dlsnar <euoa) what do you d>? 1 tike a troll: (ex. 47). Ion tnuai toko much cue 
(to UM onra on Mouuat of tho i*d Isuoiklnt- a>aisfl«t)1 1 go out oaly after the 

•as bu (irjart) s« (•Birfirf'.a.). Wh.rUo to you go* 1 go to lt« staobar. <*6a* au; 
t»® Ik*™; ABU,® «4Mhor*>, > aio. brtoaa tola* thoro (*OOQ wind). » ah*n go with 
you this eraleg. 1 Ilka to loslt at (aio| tho I tan. How bmstlful thay ihinn 
tho Xouit Is tHi country I X«, ani I lie to aoo iho rioing (odifw) noon (a)ggrf». 


colanto 0*O|ml« «£>i-|iO» coon? Jim jjAsstctom qfcru (if. ‘ago' Is English, 
itaodlug alto behind). ofeeds t>tc oj^iiO 3 hOMT mj« 6 «*«<> <«« «o W a) 


o-Kfly** irllnMi »atm. 4^ ojjj, 

&&><« oyaxn.. tHwO. av-.ovcrfy** *5*0.1017 ;»:<* uo'^i Buucs miionii. 

»•■ n»fllm •?*) <«om$ or «ng «oo 3 ). 02 a«*'i«'*’ ‘ oo*»»r> sQa>.« 

nfffn* atnre«^jK« au>\s»aj. udWaTifcj. oat «»jj ooiasiB»» rniae<b «<n 
aj>n »®<ke»*aiix* rajaasc'fljjitn a 3llWOT - oilinn cr7 aaOi io<alo«mi 

mionciibtriltV fia^aoiuflawm.. 3 *>»»,! «nil o»^>. 

ct7is*'.h sr.'ijxsre in^oaof c^tQ fszrflfa. a>.ian> rrTiofl.h ukji 

«»:'6 (nb^ifi a>uioo.' oaxHV* (not u la Eaj. or <t>irauu!) 

of>/loa. «a:r* mas* "v*ias'a«Mm>. nya* 1 <rei’u/l i u<iO*-fc.-i a.trc., *,aa* n>it 

«ui <rf«*a<»> >o_o*tb> to:.* <«.£■* 

<rj'/>nr»al si_o*uo, aolik.8 o-^nrij n»j* c" Moaimai rnlnili^ 

«*i= arao. maza 

at* <" *vj*n.1wrra. 

•"i- 1 * **S“ *«*• 

*3i. AMjfT. 

<roac*t;jue>*T> • 

«OJ to 0tHO«T»)«A eao 
>trearo< mafia* *t> 



H*» ay Xu will o*uc? Y«i. U a *aitla$ in tl* Tornuda- Toil lU Uuntfci to come 
futo the rwra. VsotH vkit It the mvi uidiyP 8<r, tbfiw l* MUuf jarilteiar. Hit 
diwn, (thaw and) jlw me aa #••>* au»ry to r**d. 

*n'n »u*ry 1* t» dlOoaU for a ba^lanor fone who HgUa). t «X»ll tra&ilat# U k*»rd 
foi u\>i'if> VUt don tit. moat 

VUi Co* * thii ? It k lb« l>olftt Cm#. Wti* If llial ohkb follow# k* It ft# a Twb. 
l« It a TYwtrftfr* Of ou /amiajiiirj l f *bf faniit Verbs art Tory aeldom Jo MalayaUu. 
What Is thlil It if a JVmou* end not a JYown. If thin W irst, lerood or third Tenon? 
Vhlf #*iw to be aa Attribute- Xo, II » aa Afar*. I* tb.a a Rtinifr Xo, a Singular. 
T <U nif a ittl* lo diitlajuUh hin^ular from PUrol. Slow It to xm in tic Gwuimar. Wbac 
Cento' H tklr? It Is lf&uuUnt. This will do for to-day, I thall raid tU« r«#t u>-iMrTuw. 

You hum alwayi ipaah to me in MaUyalaa. 1 hav« tuaik a aUleU, do a yrstti «o«. 1 

»ul Iaii# tii*noorcw Why f I I are to go to a nnrrla^- Yo« aoy C«s hut t>« day 
after to-morrow yya mud ojbjp bece. 

7Vb niUUon- 

Qjnw^on? ojow cAijsj^l ■Aioism'ltfc 

csT»t& <or oinirfi (Ojciacti) o-o. ^ct^’V^lr t 2 ‘f® 

o-.Tnaxr>j* a^e.sAiCLTroo:<r» a<mo c^aVib! ajiaTl^tm^rrT fona^i 

<nc«o <ijHdta «*WWrocucA b»; 

mo5W« tvjcaniVfl»>ArTW. cog QJDc^k Qj3U>»3Cd\ a^ionit-) ©rfl 

oot^ «t>rioi (Q o^3 odi, nwsio_i<fl f c) *•) o^'«fa «sg (i#o § 07) OTB«of3? 

w*a Qj\ «ni . wwc^ii'iin «fi9su:p2ag •QCBxactM ^Ico 

ang rr\j4^i?A^coQa»o i3»«Di2i2:dK^Wac&o? A^aidml^-jocnio 
C/3o OitM iiQMJdKm. fiOa^P Wfl CT53i2>o «t> W *r» 



IjLj sflm KQAra. S S £ CftattOmo CVaMOmo <QJ LTXh 
q-j snaaamo? ©a o<* DoiQjIflcsaatfroo *1^ so Mma»$ «®w ©ft 
Qj'oc^aiMmo cs $nj<^>OJ.ajcna20? »»W> a^AUaJ^o 

{iQfrsMt, in tUfAkritj. *4 AOj zxr&nxQo coj^QCUAjmexTrtqkn ®<® 

"V© 5 ajr..B)o(OQTr*; «a a a^3<0,QsrotmDlc& •oerfls.oJto (*smn^»ii!a. ••« 
t »8|. »a -*B cjW>aod>.<rn? ss ojgjWio «i«™ (F.ini u*» Q^eSW/oo; 
Xenia* = (T)a^or»\i*ej\oiy^o). »™ ®a coo, ®-* 0 >’ ■»>* nw* a.:oT»9M. 
oftMA *6*Ad : ? s <n;©m3iff’$t»imt. 

••TO, (Of =onm ffllWoOBTXimc. iroft ■a'O'O. dkgJIYS 

lojTTb. .^ojf .metal » «anfl*s «<w •afcwnvseflme a-uiseireme aiaai»ji *wtf . 

aftMdeM tuiaH. ca-Tr»t* ftionnxh c®*»-g a»Siewr*. 

Eleventh Lesson. 

Succession of Time ( 111 . Part). 

Tl. tnjjg) O^l^eJOfiTI OJOcM(TO®531CHB 6TO>3o6 Q^iOiMOOO (YlOnjOlgo 
Oojjslfy flcB^sa eat nY'sre 8i$6o gcrooo ajosraraj Haring asked 
about foar times in which hone# (he) lives a tell man gate (me) an answer. 

IM. la which bums H (be) d*elli.| 10 1 .boot f»w liuei »i«M «ft-n.«rdi ■ 
Ull mm ias*er said 

72. o$*s aasoitaosm TolioagstS aisejteacvo^'? emoxA 

qams rnWro^siS 03 >tj1 b> 4 caiman, eieaistcAo BMJil wrooat «toolct< 
croljj "Which washermen washes your clothes? He was formerly tour washer- 
man, bis cans 1 do not know. 

GWeJiM<0i denotoi the Indian rnsenor of "nthlug by blotto* the itotfc«« t-fslnss 
roan, niueily in * rlter, rat-nl. «eiu»«. 

78. ««v3a*> oejodvS'or® aitQ a\aicrc<noioa^a>o asnvodiloxmWt^o 
CGtoBo ogjtfoo ^oifrooraVnft (i\urmOfroa>l fficnnxj God baring mndo 
the world in alx days, he took rest on the seventh day. 

§97. Difftttnce fie/uww and aijj? (compare ex. 1 and 4 

with ex. 71, 72). By asking «aa we intend to single out a person or 
a thing from a number, while <«a x asks for tho quality of a person or 
thing. So moans “which” or “which thing" (among the things 
before me): -as means “what” or “what a sort or kind of person or 
thing”. Hence: VTUiW shits (•tBOOfM my children or tho children lurryinilnf oe> 
bu door thto «eg a6"i so® naigji KoaxflcS ooW i»sa ojgQl&o (Fem.) 
■^nvfiMQigj du nu icbox whitb of ih»a i»o ptrwci was tii mx (or. In the same 

- U7 - 

manner ojiaifii (llasc.): e« ■do* ojtjrfv* 4<wo.v* »ea:«^ siauif 
WVo i* Ii« eVtar Bid who i» «i* rougcr of (bet* two *<a>? WhM do yoi lliiuk of *2lfl 
OiWtfW'iaf WU»! > Itmil U thlo ( 00 !: **hkli of nj mtou', I'll -wliu ioti of 
» Mount*) ®Qii* tied* «jim1«soofni»tro! 

Of course, also the Plurals ofljoni (Mane. and Fern.) and 
(Neuter) may occur; f.c. si o.£in,*'.» o-m» ea.*f— o^p* 

C-fate af^ocb -aajf Whiah of tboio children nr* ohQdtm of tk* fim »if«' Which on 
the bcuioi btlfozlaz to the bfopluhik In <oH»i*UI Snlajutaa «sojA, .fflCu Btc. ire nit 
wed. We MlalUoM <fi06, *a a «*'7)- 

besides being the Neater of »aa><* and eaa«h, serves also as 
Pronominal Adjective without Gender and Number: -an aa.ii. *sa 
«®H aTij, *9 a«o^4, *39 a-'li-fx*. 

Instead of ^o>«, oaaxb, *aa also awoiab, a>wj 5 o, coo*® may ho 
employed (Plur- «io>fe, Besides the Neuter Gender in phrases 

like aoontivao *ctasn»o»"*j (nothing •'111 bt left), micniiMoa* a-inflgj iwWy 
OMO) serves as a Relative PronouD, boo § 253 , 262 II. 

§ 93. Ex. 70. 78. The Ordinal Numlen are formed from the Cardinal 
Numbers hv adding «ns«. to the latter. Thus, »w», «•**, itim-, 
•near.., ®0OM, «3S--v. Acqjok, n-W>» etc. btjb Vul. c l «a»n (rtijBi). 

§ 99. Ex. 67 and 72 »bow that besides the Auxiliary Verb «m*., 
cignTi (to u mb, t»M moh) a similar word may be formed by adding 
erf)* to the Adverbial Past Participle of <n»*, ordeal cl <&• *to b» inch,' 
Past Tense: « 1 »». Just as 1 etc. (§ 93) is added to 
so also this •ywlmaa may be joined to ftr*-ae*<oiotn»j J. e. - 300 * 
Qjtia cbb'oim tensafloiti* I »vi rer» w.»rj ( = 1 bud uoeh veer.Kin. 


I «■« at:c6 tiaaflmat. 

Thoc vul of i *iaibf»n. 

Hr tmt «ea .ft mnaflnim. 

Wo van oxo (f0UB») 

You WOW OllBMOs 

Tb-r were boo* OB^liaox 

I hid ^a-Daiert.-n'.niirB (if nod >u * Finite Vorb) = ^ofnncruiml I got, obulxad. 


l E»m hod uanfUi raaoftrftai it» . 


I bed bid (I lull ^ofBMraw»l|w»>w'.iao». 

a»-t> O'jcflmaD m Copul»=I «oo, I !»>• tu«o, sod 1 hid b»oo. 


Exercise 2. 

Id joer girlea them »r« r iany trees. VThlth t ru* are Cho tout beautiful* The 
P*l® Ira^ asaa r> tree and plantain Uhl Ho yon eat fruit «T*rjtUy? I n»t pUnfalat 
crer/day. So do 1. Bt»idc-i I ordered juy Mrrant to hr I a j ix fatare everyday orange* 
frrai kbo bazaar. Wken I *«nt t> th« bazaar yesterday, 1 Mt i *'•** many (of them). 
Tell ti ? gatdena? to so* sous brans, potato**, radiaaus, mint, *&d encumber In the 
*enlr». la via* port of the garden al*U ho *>» t bon? la that plot* of the garden 
cl>st to tlo golown and tU stable. ftuni this* pUnta into put* and pet them near the 
bouse. Did ywi tea ter the plaataf Dig the ground here slightly and pluek out the 
gmsa. PsJl oil all tho daad loaves fren that tr»«. Duss it rain? Yas air, it mine rery 
hard That drilling raia *as z»t auMclest yesterday. Till o^ht vans a nan to 
watsi iU gardau. 


*a:acn»icA 0*0* *aa **«fri**m «j'vray» 

UuotY, ex. S$.) tux^jo ®>a*a aovtqp. rrfte»<>» *Tkn» 

fr»ja^r mirb tflatfmxn xnfe tfreT*. o»3?c cncn>lcn «s»cn>. c^rroa^Tneofc, 

noil ^VcLrioxxn rsfwi *•**) cutmrh axrb ajmUMfeto*? 

«>*ft fionfe:* BVsrsjCrtz** a.vjjss^j mio« ajg «^cr|. e»cn 
aj%®cy>arv ct a^l^vc^c v022»T>^j oa_x:orm>i/3 oujsa<T> 

l e gate rt^ajsctte io< a ^jr^ ojo*. c*a«* leoofc kix rrf 

a?^^>0(£»sm<ar? «fl»«fv*i*oago r* cPra an a arftoft r>afc> 

«T5 *:c-.qfc oIla»ftiefi! «•) v^sImi mg (cn^CVO), afltfkwfco 

enjiTo * *aj<*. (rYMKTOrfiacn*.) crft&» ftaMMfl 

ajjj ajO*'lft < y^«to. + <***■*) «*> «.D«R*'li*rtSVrt> ftflTXWlo 

ZiUA'X c4$j»a (♦•3$cn>, <*0*a^ to pull oft, barn Auxiliary Yorb cox vs 7 lag 

the sons* of 'avay*, 'q(T\. to* Aajrq fra ia/?f ***** OttJigg! air *<5Vnmrt 

©ojjjrr*. ©<m*aj a* ojsjTi Aeu<m© ©cm cdj®Ti to?*» 

(xhosov, «k< 3B, shxaaxnb or As^sflb) «*d)c}j 

74 . Ailsroroicaaovo aj^lsungao <o5)<g(0>) oflnag aicncmaorrvo Q.oi 
ajaniyijo cnkgnnlaiae qj.?Iaw mstfflownMrri There win be ejamiea- 
tioo from tbo eigbUienth d»y of tho lut moDth till the twentj-rixtb d»T of the 
next month. 

o»A3oe. «o inw (Aifiojf, Ai/la#i|. 

75. aoifgijumojiiomo «ro^oi oruaa) ojOgjo^o nroranio 
aersao ajootonnlgjj; ojlacm o^|C|OQiifiao bids) *i)§) When the fether asked : 
“Who hu done this", wo said nothing. Then all of u» got » beating. 

76. 4 ODODQJ o^)cral<n>3i)o>cro grog ®aJ<g(in”? o®TB a^|OT>)(A 
oaioko a oi a|) ^cnmoLoatDDg caioeliyooo “qjdoo A^lorarai 
oc^iuo svdoia OaJ^jo ©oJigco" ogjtrra 4TOa»i gflimo ojosbwjj When 

a chilli, smaller than I, asked the schoolmaster: ‘Why did the king do that 1 ’, 
be answered: • You may ask such question* after the lewoa". 

§ 100. Ex. 74 show* that tho numbers from 10—20 are formed in 
Malayalam by joining the numbers 1 — 9 to &>aV* the oblique case 
of r~qa- Thus, 11 t^OTV.rre; 12 a><3«|- 13 14 ojrfVm.Bji 

15 ®jrfVraaji 19 <u*tni<ai2 etc.; 20 b««-s> (there is another word for 
2 aied for 20 and its compound*.) 

1. *(T». 



2. co«n> 



8. «<m. 


4. ffVICJ. 



5. M(OJ. 


8. ar*±. 





•. 4f. 





0® <uq&. 



§ 101. From — till with reference to Timo and Tlaco means oo-j— 
a>*», <moi here employod like a Preposition in English, is the Ad- 
verbial Participle of osi t a touch; so it means “touching”, “from”. 

"nig (waio^grfVWnD™) Cuao (Ajgcuitfnl «aqj: Qiao.) 

Instead of oo.^ qentt> and instead of m«o also ®cqo (as much as 
aoso in b«q:«i or ®a»»(miso so far) are employed, but the latter 
must always be affixed to a Noun or Adjective Participle- Thus: -From 
<1* d»j la ohiah ha hu bean hern till tall d«.tb" max* <o«* amm 

•*»«' «M. — *»o i£_)30QJ0|Jo tta &oiro< «*arAo •Bi < oscTli*><l(re enQqg *an" 
I Win tal a a («DU*«rTa, —QqQ, anqeic) *x4 *lie job u tej-h fiiik from nj l»4j >■ 
h otjnil io tidi pl^too. aaorfft^s at&j nojfsafi &fiOJD4i <mn(j n «:? r«uoa!xg 
I*w«r p««e) A am miguliru liolr phjtMal ittoagth (hoed). In this connexion 
(with Nouns) * a . means as much as: “as far aa”, “aa great as”, “as 
much os" (soe § 174. 1). 

§ 102. The Malayalam shows a tendency to put the Interrogative 
Pronoun at the end of the sentence dropping the Auxiliary Verb (sail 
onto oTiai .®t» I ■soiortio nfijo o^o'iy ^o'us? 

§ 103. There are some Malayalam Verbs which require that the 
subject should stand in the Dative and not in the Nominative. F. *. 

•anfloi aj«0«ry eogjl«> oTIal. asirfloi oiad'c*™. «:»■ swiiiufl^. 

§ 104. Ex. 65 and 76 show some new meanings of the Lofotiv*. 
Besides denoting Place (m^r* o *»■*), it means “among" (o.a'is.rflrt 
edljj ex. 65). The Locative in ex. 76 oaicflm am atf) shows 


that also a Comparative may be formed with the help of the Locatire, 
so that it ia employed instead of *»<>», /. e. ©» mmM In 

the same manner this Locative with a* expresses a Superlative, f.e. 
rnnojrb aiaafavoiflb m&B\m c% he was the greatest of all (§67). 

Tho second ex. in our sentence (McroorfV* &fo<ro) indicates that the 
Locative with *^a?m may also he U3ed instead of tho Genitive with 
(o^cnvTtO»r*n arf\j|ato<*a *>+***). Thus: “Not »t 

thot tin* (j7l)« d>7 a/fcnranlf tio !•»• fcOM kim- «©im 

ajfem »QiC<n ftftocm (Ms^aw, #*nr», Alio 


§ 105. c<<W ex 74 may help iu a way to distinguish &ecx< 
dn^A t and gjitaw from each other. where it is not an 

Auxiliary Verb (see §94, 99, 63), means: ‘to ait” ‘remain" ‘and to be 
in a place'*, *to exist somewhere" and <n>* *to be” (Copula); /e. 

mo *a(ro<wf.M o»*t> ©oftls (I ftboll b® hww tbi» wouib}; QC (L:sm>OT^ 

QjgSi> airf (Ttwr® or* many rotrohftnti £u this city); ®<f*> «noT^ 
ccoot (lit. TWxy ike licknfcu U «one; Unlay he ii wort®). But mrb rflrrvmW 
«aoow i nm ia. To understand this us* of we must substitute 

C»\3tCj.f6 or e®anh before 

Extrcisf 1. 

JAM* and MWr utt. 

.fiai aoiic^raa^M” »uft ooo'ioi)-* <oMUi ojea* ao**. m>i 

r$s& a r - Mio'lco” a^axmeiaio? «>"i oa«a£l‘ l tf»ia<,aa ajX-na»ooolr*' l nV'™ 
outre a.Taie».'?ia»o«i»iTi» ,! . b' apjiiOCKOi m%j>t d^fon 
o" 4ai>»(nkm? no (dOmoiinx® aajflrfVty. Oaiov” e^^o*' 1 seifBOjo*’ oAi*ap"' 
*rfl*rflckrfW > -ja^cro. jjrfVnj «*t>: aaj>zc-*tl'lei° «»4i 

rfliTVW t S a^»^-^WVn>A ,,, n®o. •'V' 
U<n<nn»nMuih eoio.'W acufW o^hT^d ajTtfWar* 0 nfliunflo 

*«"■' •eofl*" 1 tfW* *3%. o^fQj^gajiOfl. a_ie>* b i|ro ®’®> 

«en^bl» objjiT »9' m a°"' &■“***<* saox^o. ortTbva*^ <“» a-*®**®* 111 

a^JOflo" 1 oa*i4»i|»fo ul fiOOVO.™. 

b*WVt» a<®V l «ra “> co - <ni »s»o>V 

^ «| ^ ^ ^ ^ 

" M.U1. "Odd. al napr-fllf. *'»!•«. * O.p. *> o^.i pelt., tb| M ; 
^rlioriio; oAto*B(fl» predou, Oj btm- '* Copj-r. " Irca. *' I«d. "‘'Tin. 
,u * 1 ^ . lido, pit; •iT*. U dy . hoi.. "’ ®9Q.^c orcdfnl, n.c~«ry. ,W a® 
drr», 9'=«.'l U mol«i ant* -h»« ^ a*!l«d. Sled. ,0 flohdHy. * aa-iTko. oMWm 
g•^ I cntch. lllM--ol*md. " I Uni '" Pci-». ,rt ^U°®> «d ti> 10 reb ! 
,,: •sjiofl ilonioj of t«mIi; •ef.'ft s™. _g 10 IId; afevgitrt* (i..««. Tal, 
,,) Xiil. Ok*. «l Koy. ul Hoe. ”’ Plsugb. "* Ron. Uoru. 


aamoal**. torftoaNt™ 0 sdo fl*W (kc JllO) arc 

onim* 1 B^ifl-rrr® nv^aiimV*. «roa H M fl n" — «■ ®*W‘ “3™» “•*< 

••majld-flm’ 1 man ujooa* Bpo.:*#*' ®»«' cn : 

■c a ^iou* 10 -' oil'M 1 * crofli'm. osj*,'lc«..ra t.aiorf'ua.g *" 1 ^amaAf^aj. " 

qoyt e- a i.o«m«jo , ‘ l AWM*. oiiaie* fiOroj •fltfap 

•ctofiB^laui*'^ nflf* ®ag»^«ao. J d'ki« a j:<fc Jl'i^pmj'' 1 »•"*■« ft®**,'* 
irfluo Kjdr.iia. (amotiiT**'"' ai''aj*airv»a UB» Nl 

aTlci pouco^' »tvm. 

Exercise 2. 

I>oro«iffc m>}»* <«»nAn»Ai ftow pa}t 57) 

To a*«ep the frjot yard 
To >1 lit th» tabtei 

To pat bcok* ou a sbelf 

Tka t:o«i lifcv# qrytu tooildy lu tit rainy 
«ii:j. ckau Cham! 

Baoirr© Clan otfwba 
Ah«! vUM-oat# c*t*a into my iox and 
tfuikd orarycblsg 

Tkore wm a eoccj.wo and a <*otij*»d* amUr 

iba akav-nai 

To enroll and ti roll up a Bit 
Toko chi* io*p aad Md It ap id papar 
To unj«u * a paroal 

To put tl* ted (a critr (£c* lying d$wa) 

To but out tbe dut frea o o»t 
To roar v«Ur Into a ba*i» 

To ponr oat water 

To QlsiM tko faith, co walk tb* fa«, to 
toka a bath 
To dm* aad aadr*JM 
To diun a laro 
To fcgbt a lamp 


•«ca f^R54k. 



#»aioo . 

£7 «*S'W\ 

tn*ai: •^a ,| «i •»'»■** 

njciojsajus *ia «o|t on •«* 

taj, jsiKalis™. 

«>, aaiti*. 

tt>9* Bat oiloloi. 

A»j:Bs OOt)£\ $$•. 

i»u avrf.r* ( a.i*i onlui caiM* 
ms. a^fl*. (a®®). ®' r ‘®* 

flMtfB (*»«•), B«u* •a' 1 


B ,». »|/W 

aiBM a OK4 »* (•Q-st^jlBi). 
oflitfo < mkTo». 

coiton, modul. "Oidillnoa, 
l,, Aibw. ^ l} Colour. 

l,> AirOT* oandal 
"’•tidQCB, O-^lot 

Qluaam, lint, ihint} *• 

’'l)Mj. " Strength u R(ul. ''Mfdirtn.. 
t-oio. 11 Piomb. •ami ».!gbt. w 9 , Mild, Mfl. 
orf>#j UNI (Ou,t*> C*i -tla n»r* U*r) 03 * Bit plate of 
•tm ul Miilil pooBir. •tgjji until plan. H, 0r 
hU. bt It. "'tlac memi. 10 ^«n ChiBNi 

■all. b« It. 
ohwfS with bet*l 


••' nipt, rab off, ohm. " J*»*l, J»a. 

uiM trfbaJteBJ*, nsa«o. [q,<5|o. 
Bo arroijj *<l9>ja • sa,, 3T | i‘ 


To oxfcngiloh a ll*li ai'te* ■«. 

To (lion Ik* ofaluiBO? of o lamp aTli»»loi*o afl^i 9 a**.. 

To «ol tin »ick of Ji qrflai lor). 

To ihsrpoa * knife o>a»f $ 4»aiM> (aaaal. 

To elros fork mil ijuin o.oro'1%1 gna. 

Toko thu ud pm H m Ik* lotrtb b^|Q 

To mod r.oo «o1 efT— . 

77. erao^m Arm&Zg ADBnOCm Agl oQ)«lCTO 05 am 

«mo, 0A0§0? ewoaa! ama&; sjt'd! ino^cA ojoiirnsn} Tbo child that 
will soo father (first) ahull at once call for mo, “Do jon bear? Mother 1 look 
boro! father in coming". 

78. sroxifl £<rr>5o ajolcOrtX&Wj wcolawo oiom ara.o^iwrbo 01 I 5 IC& 
ajogjooi «xu)mci«. mitnlm 15 ecru going omoaiooi (tJ|rnluHi <i_io 
s^gj I intend to stay in (my) fatter’* house till I shall hare pusod the third 
examination. Before thut I cannot go far. 

“ *-'’5 + » Bd* 

79. £20 o-wno •Ao^oah a^jrnUa ealdAealgj ; «yo».-A aen 
3 olj 3 m «0 It is not pceelble for me to give ao inuoh money •, I am only a 
poor man. 

■MB' °nty. 

80. tfraTTjrtvarracDo jg>soa<m era®« ajernlaSri) Ov<©oq<»:>cA 
o(J)a?<9fl <a»tflojsns Withoot any help I can manage to pat w much cargo 
into tho bandy. 

*><a>nd1, ^ooqo; •»tcn > ritbftr, tt ring*. 

% 106. Qiourraom (ex. 77) show* that ®n* .sometimes is added to 
the Present Tense of a Verb to give it a future meaning or to strength- 
en (he signification of a Present Tense. Thus: cut*'™** means be shall 
certainly come or he is coming (when we see the person approaching). 
This form we may call the Progressive Form. 

aairO iiu'mo] I «n> coming, 
mai* o»T*<n»*r* ho I* coming. 
mV&Difc ajiamrf you ktu coxziug. 

§107. To express & Possibility or Impossibility the two Nouns 
and «o>ylaj (or its Verb in short 

arc employed. Thus: 

I «*n jjnf *t 4^ a j>|W', «uAajrf. 

I «aM «a<rflat o^eruol 

1 ftiAil t»i tgrritti Atflajo, hI/yTv^ aj«*r*>*r, a^r-W 


In the same way Perfect and Pluperfect are formed. 

I mt <!''a atAtfuj. 

I could til •ocrilea «a^*H oj»41((»<rf*a<», aa-^'<n» a >f o-'lgjo 


I ih»n not lx obU -i-e'ie, **\*p*> 


Ei. 78—80 show that the Auxiliary Verbs denoting Possibility 
or Impossibility are procedcd by a Vorb in its Adverbial Participle, 

•*-n)eo Boigwr* ©lAaw, 

•a’flco djgot® Oii^l«oe|. 

•arHai oa)^or« anT<nw, 

We may call this form the Potential ilcoi of the Verb. 

§108. Ex. 1, 2, 4, 5, 23, 28. 49, 52, 60, 70, 79, 80 intrcduce 
Malajalara Correlative Pronouns similar to those in Latin nn.1 Greek, 
{/. «. quantus, tanta9). In English and German these relations are 
expressed by special Adverbs or Interrogates (/. e. how much, so 
much, ns much). In Malayalam for these three relation* the 1*1000008 
«ro, e and o® arc employed: mo point* out what is distant 
•eojO>, «b b , •Barns, tra^h, me, miRiao, •o*yBca«, * 0 * 9 , 

gj points out what is near, thus: bo«4. ®q^>. xa. boJVis, 
box, B»t>>a*, B«0s<n, ««9. a® or 04) is used for 

the question, hence: (§ 97) -no. 

a*, m-,. Cf. § 252. 

£ocns (ex. 77) An Interjection derived from bbi means: boi»»vd bint 
It has also its Correlative in «•>•> boioid tor*, omims fltoaui avfil.esrre 
look Ikon Ihoj b»ib»t The Imperative omo*.* is frequently used at the 
beginning of a sentence, in order to call attention to what one is going 
to say. It corresponds to the F-nglish “well", “look here” and the 
German “hSr” or “sieh”;/. t. •vnei'i ofl maxvn +asu* b* to 9 aiaa» 
irnaftq ’ oi>® W*tl, »t?o joa iro bln loll him lo ow boro. 

Bsi iho owk como olrmdyf Hi m nol In ll« kiMMo. Whnl ■ m.n to III X-wy- 
diy I mu MU him lhai bo bM lo bo how panaleilly »t • o’olcek to Ibo nornlog. Bo I* 
coming Juit oow. Why on job ■> Ulo,ocokt 81 j cklid !« Ook ood I onld »M loon 
my boon ooriltt. Look bon, ecuk' do not bo M Ui. iiolo, I ok.ll m.l forUtnly dedoot 
oxo Bopoo from your n|d il tko ood of lb* mralb. Xt (my) M«l« (down I oonl 
Ibo koyo lo Iho (idooi Go oil coke IS polite* ood toil Horn. Skill I bHag Aim 

*Bem&rk: Pooplo in geocrii ohtrton a.mon-r'S^g lew Q/Borro^q (ott § US). 



vilh thr rkia? No, take oP tlu akia uj mnkr a »ub? Whit aliall I do uith tta mint? 
I »iat it mute* for; \jt din nor jou gHn U cold Hut fit not for*cc to n,nW It 
to** 1 , I C.iuld Kircel; oic ll rim .lay bef..rr yeitcMny: (ft «i« »« tough a. kith* 11 , o 
drwocil au n« dry Mough then, uadattt. Oo mv o *4 toll the baidymni Co <ou» Mrr 


*^n »rfU*«3ct> q.<td5oj>? n^ntfoVWlqi -cfc. coirfe <*j.*-TT»>^>axw6! 

^aTkliu ^|Q«4rr>i4t urfanofl «o*»ctth *a«m ax^ 

ff^ajnba aa a>n.rra. <^nSVrfU.><3>. nfl 

«‘8 «®an&n o^o» rfknto«i), mgtoiivv (Ibtrofrro) omaam aTt§ 

aT$Qj:<* ni^** <VM9*rav)aafflR|. ftW, A«fkvfl*ml <rfl soft ftrftaiBjo B2Q 
«"****; aia<ro»V* «*>r* »-* asmaaataftto «Mjmto<niK»W* uMa «<n* 

«nT.MrrflT» ■£<!* Qtyyle* a 7 * van ttTtasur. IMQS^M g}^! «)l«MAk 

6a-<rTTo. cvf, o^mA ajp;*"j afoa? sj-jox *w>no 1 (with) 

aaoiica «*>*"» Jo^i, crfl •<*:** »a^» 

Q&sri j^aonr.' ®oai!fio*>Ti| <^ 3 . Aojxgcrf 9 aattoaMl ,ro Jfc 
a, ™*> cTkril.Tn OOTan a <wfl oo^s' ro^P <$qajx*> ©Vril 

“* S{n> ao B .oJCUdKfA (kUo) <a^“s* *vj<fr».T**Ta1<3cie; »r.j io:4 4iu>0A) 

e«;}.S5! -Ton aPo* <r^a>£>» &<rv>srf£fcj»^7aa». crfl fo^xal aa*Ui*>n«msfr 

HMR| JjTBQjSfli o-a. 

Exercise 2 . 
lltvlrtin i 

DoiUno I he bilowiijf Noam |Xue..»lir», I**lroroot>til, Beold, I*ulTf, Lo^ofirf. 
iddtto, Unatln Diilit. Ucailiw): QadoMfKit, oaA oil i “»i ei©!, aJla*., 
aaiiuw, oi<o(j, rfl, »ui«. 

Exercise 3 . 


QipK' P« 

7o «|xir ili» tooth 
7 o ill** ».lor (from * »»lli 
The trawl u>i»J for tlila 
A tv«l trade of tbe bark or Alin of 
an >irotA*broBo)i 
Motto r for ptumliaff tier 
r*HU iMd f*r lhai 
To paaad rioo 
A krooni 

To Bill tfce brio *r»tli voter 
Vowel wl for raking r.<» 

•^aj mrmw 

a-xaa. omA*). [^i.. 

* i>*««rt*B<m®ioni*(aj>©«), oo*. 6 »r*> 

ojib (Urk or HI* of «o *r«i*-iir*ock). 
B-M* liiOrf»l- 

fc- IOi (IOMI1) of Mack-voxl). 
os(>! niJOo (ho P»*o <•)• 
eiafiri, ni<*. 

•a- 1 ? «WO|fli. 

&iu> lautoyi pUMkt). 

- 75 - 

Y*tMl wmJ for OKikiiitf curry <poi, pfcu> 
p W*4 

Wittr rcitrl (fcr drinkioc) 

8**u of II 

Mobil pliio (for «utik*» 


&*<lia* |»t (Ml) 

S>»>o o~*d by nAtlres <nndt «/ o r*o#on»t* 
To aako a lire 

KlroTMl; »«ni fur tlr<v>:«i; to clam voed 


To p«i raothloe on ilia flr* 

To warm ca#«£f wilb a tlr* 

nifil (ftfeo AJ*1 rin* pot). 


*W 1 . 

4 »Wkq *4 ajaa. 


lo'.gj. In thi> iwt cnlVr.l nJ'ceaim'A 

I** ini' aaj®)* 

W 1 * ( = lujrff.l 

irfl aojraflaa, ofi o'l €«o»'W. 

ailo*.; oJInaOir* a-uiafli u^.-ia * 1 ivfc- 

seSgjla aa«*. 
oT«w««. (aT^voj). 

Twelfth Lesson. 

Why wo do something or why something has happened. 

81 . ffrao>n 6 3 i^ 3 jo msicm «rrjjaobygja. 0 Ofmt <no^o ar^aotosa. 
Lei us love (him), beciaw he lovod ua first. 

IU. He bnf«. ». IotM, l—»u.. %.(.hnll) !«• (hl»). ..!«,} 111. 

82. <t 7I u^sirtio AgjfDgjiMOo o^acroj^ £.os 

ojgamaniWi.oa (roson) ax»o As yoa have done according to my odor, 
you may go with me lo the town. 

83. mWn6o aJiuOjjjOSfo tkTOgjbygp.BiMrri’ «*><* © 

ml mlooaaa^ *<r«a aiawijAtolgj Because you often cheated me, 1 ahull 
hencefoKh boy nothing from you. 

moftqp htso. forth, In falira; aoj^a.aTi* no ei. J1. 

§ 1 09. m» ®<^oW (ex. 81) as Imperative Plural First Person may 
surprise; one might expect orison*** which is wrong. 
is preferred, as m» (see §42.) includes also a Second Person (I and 
you). Hence we say in church crx* lot u* pr*y. 

§110. In an Adverbial douse imticaiiug Cause *• Bern n the 
Adrcrbial Participle (Past Tense) of (ox. 58) is 

employed and serves instead of the English Conjunctions “because" 
and -as*’ (weil). Placed after a Noun it means “with”, “through”, 
“by” etc. and our three examples show again, that also Adverbial 
clauses* of this land arc made Adverbial phrases by changing the Verb 
of the Adverbial clause into a Verbal Noun (aqgtfflri M« aaJ ^l* *» I #P 

10 * 


4&b)’ Thus mean*.: “through the loving as"; similarly 

in English: “by doing this", in doing this", etc. 

§ 1 11. In ex. 62 we ace that to express something like a Promise 
or Permission we affix «*>« to the Infinitive or crude form of the Finite 
Verb (see § 200). It is used for a polite order (as much as “you may* 1 
in English). So you may say to your Munthi at the end of a lesson: 
rnleTOiiocdO fflCjyo&o Go jo <o*oo Yw **j now. This is another form of 
the Potential Mood (see § 107 ). 

Msrk that tx oonntxiffc with the sofflx *orjo~ n!vr.ys IMttro wait W 

imploysd, /. #. *>*b Att ft qyc m , Hat oyfias wroVac*. srhk h It *« much ia: *3<rflas 

§ 112. From ex. 75 , 81 , and 83 we learn that £o employed only 
once in a sentence, means not “and" but generalizes or emphasizes 
the notion to which it is joined, and we may translate it by “also" or 
“even”, “soeTer”; /. e. n>:<w* I too than go. tft^eryo nobo&j 

o(J)rolc>e €>ctqo co *°» 00i lf » (*«b w •*■*) I “ 

1 get nothttg at all. 


Did jet botl lho milk till morning F As I lat to go to tho bizoar to buy fish, 
atgaUVls*, **4 I cid not dwi aoy ttn>« to Iwk aftar cbn tows** to*day. Lot os 
wttlo tho lesooot first. For that* tw* lahoa I paid t Anna. For nil tfctt* two*, Indy's 
fiegsr*, snak* :wua^r», ouontnbars, tho water-maiors, cjbbsgc*. onions, radish, cksum, 
wfrox, cuaio, and &a(nsj I paid 3 Ana**. I gat 4 sgg* for I Ann*. Urnc* thar* » n 
b*Uno? of * Annas For to-norre^ »s want kcroso to <rtl, gh*s, and honour* m. Try to 
got tltst thing* «hn*p. or than lost was*. rrsab buttnr 1 sboald :»ks Id gtc Ttry muob, 
Vat yua ctgU to taka it only from otoaa pcopl* Why did yon trA bnog aoy fruit F 
TLrro wn :o!y a vnat ttlling cmngs*. and a* I did net know vhntbsr jm liko tboui or 
tnt, I did fyit buy anything tharr Wore thorn no mango fruits, or plnotnlxs, or pin*- 
apflsa. fgs a? dat*. F I did not sm anything of tMs kind- You may go! 


fjrn niuHexj afl as^Poosj? a<s*c Q-*«|aj>*6 aMrxfisTr* 

9Qj:M<r^am%aiu*srf atfrOm cru««o rfjfafW mso 

Atman-nT-AnAl (g 101). so rg rfkrftm" i siacm cos^ ©« «®&J 
^Ojc^rsmo a_iisiaj<nslr»o ria*a<tf Attfto a.matnio«ao ^msT. 

<*20*u Jlo^to tf«*na"rm* fflMacT<ro 9 *a^c* *«•*> S •oom 

AA^nQ. I tft-smrw <rxaj 43 a"(JX 1 anusfl *m4g|it rr»la<*a 

g^H ao^aTx^ <yr>a^ $tO*oip> wttttm. «ejg*a>flft><fe mail 

a* croectGSMY *mt4MT*. ajrfi® ftaifg A^|<xj>-e «o>^j 0*00 ©.#£ 

A^gaD. (RptkV/) cn-2 tfa^Tjuga cra^At^lpi.Tflfm K{pj aj>*conr^. ajwtro* acrw 


of^cm jrr^2s» aisfij n^n}, 
■nfl* friWoDdug* K8J*®* <C^to n»~6 arm^svicrq ®y^ «aaJl 

•SKTflra ^t«c wn^rns ajito*> 

W»i r»:M ®o oja «***> oW^. rotcm* 


84. j£lcn>m rr>dhsi0o tft»3«mrea6mo ? cni*TO6© ^iotwj 
n^PduCmgewftasni o(J)<tt).iki a,SJ Do you « that shining star? As 
you Kami in the way I cannot see it. 

85. afl ajj)«cti>r> Agicn ejMCslmj arocwy^oMiaio dUgW aojxotj 
cnlzloroo <sti itaQiio £os>iD>ji>dKn 0 n\x>o\o*»«rBl aiiro For iMgfoetiag my 
order and going to tho bores of our neighbour, we must hoar all thia. 

80. go zoicro cnlcs^odtj ojrxy svzxroaa) oj ino^ srtnont cr>l«n6o 
*Ja*»l aan^ilorormroocro A* tbU modieiao *ait» you, I poured it for you. 

§ 113. Another Adverb for expressing a reason is ml£lon>c. As 
a Noun it means "aim'’, as an Adverb “by reason of', “because of'. 
It is employed (like «*iev) in connexion with a Nouu (ox. 65) in the 
Nominative or Genitive Case (like the English Preposition *on account 
of"). In connexion with the Participial Noun (ao^m#) it forms also 
Adrerbial clauses, indicating a reason and answering to the question 
“wborefore" (“weshalb, waruiQ-’j. It is be3t translated into English 
by “because", “as" etc. (Germ, “wegen” c. Gen). 

§ 114. q(J)ctcw*1i (ex. 86) fills up in Malayalam tho place of n 
Conjunction. One of the many meanings of o<no« (osw™, oo^) is 
“to put a case", "suppose" and bonce oi<n>iiu^ i»o tupituud) means: 
“considering", “AS tbougb", “in Anbctracbt”. Besides, au^ without 
•aro after the I-ocative means “among"; /. e ■ »i aajdWoi^ ami 

O gjQjrfc *QTD ••XTOOW. 

mamlAio ala»;«n m*aai©«o«Q a&T) »#aoxw^> o3)<re aoiry 
0<Y\>aD<afl(rn Tbo beolhesi w©.ng ibe ofclnluj iiari wppo**t (lUit ih—t ■m) joia 
»nd wartblp (thaw). 

§ 1 15 . rrvaDlo^woTBl oicro (ex. 35). In the same munuer in which 
we combine the Infinitive with ao*m*. ama*: and iaie» we may also 
employ aaisnsl, the Past Tonsc of the Irregular Verb voico*. io V* i»*»«- 
•»rr- It is often followed by q.01», so that ao»»iai¥lA means t. teco* 
nrotmirj; thus: <rooifao>P"d''i>TO II beuna D.-nunt i to b««r (§ 127). 

§ 1 16. Ex. 84 and 86 show another phrase similar to and 
namely £So, the Negative form of the Verb «»* (m bmi. jub, 

‘-oflaatMa' DS« I»UW iiougb ; dlhw DOIMM w atnxteaa (w» 4*19>. 


io mm lojcihw. oit>. Mark phrase* as: *OKw*e«* (« quarr,i), 

<"* It is used alia as an Auxiliarj Verb and mean* "will be- 
come", “nts", "is possible", so especially the Positive Future and 
the Negative Future amAm® o/o^moTaffl* mu»ni oirm ©jo By ioins 
• kiodoim *• in a.#, i .Ilk . tot return. It i* always preceded by the Ad- 
verbial Participle of the Past Tense. ogjrnUa 0=>,s^So t “»»' i«. 

aonlajcontaco’ oocboirolcis t« it j«mm« for * b... «o Mock tb- 
m>l. of (to |<« (Mir *.t thl* for* i. rnrol; nrol in jri«». In CX. 80 we have 
the Adverbial derived from *w = ^536*01. It means literally: "so as 
not meeting", “joining", “not being there”, "without". Another Posi- 
tive form of this Verb we hare seen in ex. G5 3nd 82, namely g,s or 
gjes. These arc the Positive Adverbial* of ©a«> and mean like the 
regular form “so as joining with"- “together with" (see §128). 
These Adverbial Participles are generally added to the Social Case, 
as: I o>-b $4- 8aj!»t I ««nl togMhrr .Ilk l be fothor to 

in. » (see §220 I., 3), or «*>i ©os t no ibaii go. Also iu connexion 
oilli the Genitive Case ©ii may be employed, ft. ®m uImOm («j1 
Hob».= i«o, auot ifuakir) -onto ©*n (rilcjnglofto™ Hr kor« “ l.tocpMUr .Ilk 
him. For the Interrogative < 9 is (we §213, 6). 

§117. friWjn6o«e^3il (ex. 86). Although the Dative itself (§36) 
oxprcsse3 a ' Purpose" or an -Intention'’, Ihis meaning is rendored 
more strongly by adding «a®n or also smart (see § 127, 220 L, 4) to 
the Dative (Engl, “for”; Germ. “far"), tort <rta»<nwan »><rfWW 
i ihnii -»ii f« joo In the same manner i* affixed to the Adverbial 
Participle Future Tense (sec the ex. nt the end of § 10S). oam*™ 
•Of to Mo>; aow^aomirt hr to bur (*ee § 1 38). 

Now we mny sum up the ehitf i nxmings of the Dative Case (*>a“ £ ' l ) : 

1. aUiJ^o'Uo lojiaTl wrnt to ToUlebrify; ajono* oft lh. HnuM ought 

Irr; «ra aim osro,«iaa Aa-nailf ought t*oro i»o **b*t tad tewgb: tbm 

to tkore. Here the Dative expresses that somebody or something draws 
near to a Place. 

5. »B* acurro I waul to* at nn.ui; gim o1ajar4o»4« #efl tb» hii» 

f» S tuj». This is the Dative of Time; especially «j-* is invariably 
emplojed to denote Time. Something like tho Greek Genitive in 
"nwi;" at night. 

>. «0»>b njart** «un«»n, I mail BO to »M*i irtmc* mow IOjO&M tUMWl 

SI., ni Ikon »ktj for u hitting ; oT.nolJ-ito SO«as»la» SaJl®l to ■ tub to 

r.uh vAtir. These examples represent the Dative of Intention or 
Purpose. To strengthen this meaning of "Design” and to convey 
even the idea of a "Motive” sort and amart are added. 


4. (a_<n>»> • i aoc£ f rb tnjfc Who li worth/ nf thtt t 

t&xm* i wAMt lint («>o>^d). In t&eBe instances tlie Dative does indicate 
IPorttfott* and TFdJtt 

ft . a) i»a atfrO* cm. ft ) agon* (4k>nro*») <lo*t It); c) <&vfU« 

b«jm^ h- tought »* tb» w»yj avoiit <£!«*<*. In these example 
the Dative expresses Authority, Ownership, interest or has Genitive 
meaning. This is also the reason why we aay «i<n> aioI^, m»ufljy 
(ouocr^d), +\f\ (see § 103. 126), |f«wgot); (sea jj 107) etc. 

As to the Postpositions generally governing the Dative Case, sec § 220. 

Exercise I. 

Wbiw ll the *anle*frP Uo hoi goxe to rejrtlr tho hnlg*. What sbrmbi will ho take 
for tint ? I tappcM Uo dmply plant* it aoeio mw Arlppu (Amorloan wild tagt, t.onlm 
Bad abc«fi»fftrf; hi eraeptrw, that will grmr without -prolrt our* Ml hit* 
to tor all li? ftioJlS, fb#, tbo white-* Lt 3 will have them uua ip or* loii*. Wbara almll I 
dig tho hodoa for |U»« jouag eoeoanu* tr*« P Pig the belw th*re nxd owr them t .opeely. 

00 Acfrt to the Jodgo'* Itouio and art for ioiuo cutting*. Fran which tr^M abauld they k« 
takwu ? I «b*ild like to gut oeaio frtxu mango licet and >ck trcei. Car pbaialu grow 
«ry nicely s l» ****** th» r time to Ur fruit h n*ur Oardeaer! om there coantrj beet* 
in thli garden f Pluck son* cf thou and bring then I taro. See whether tka mud wall 
mod oar garien to repaired, every night wild plgt aof foreoplxot oono In, dig eat tho 

pnntow Bad do meek miirtiof among** all afcruk* n«d flnwora. Do jnu tew tb«t man- 

key cltnbtog *p tho otero of n tree* In cbm ho rc*oh« tho fop <f tbit tree, tho iworm 
or Ub up there will at usU kin and *>ng bin drrodfnlly. At hr d d rc* take care, ha 
hat to it Cor all thla&Jw. Do uot cxio«e yosiraelf to Che tua vUb<*l n& umbrella. UclXf 
out with my fnllwc I alway* toko an umbrella. At It It to bee tkit year, a great «toay 
of oar ycuzf trees will wlthar away. Link at that ram bulk, hew many budi ora it***! 

1 aw it a km te wait thorn. To-morrow aiocalog b of them will ko cf#t. What a dell- 
c^aa weat; That mango trm aUodi tUr« fall >t fruit*. 7bai ia a very »**« kiwi of 
fruit. la It net niarToltoui bow the ro> t, tho atump of Cite trae, Sta item, browhew, twree, 
ipronU, b U&.ym aad fraiti all th»« iprlng up from a little teed I I-*t ut rake a littlo 

nwt under the ckade of Oat CWauarina. 


at»ogAc>orft «®Qjl<r6f *ociW> f'AjaTl mtmwOQXcmsa^Q Jojwfl. msrtOmx* 1 
wnoj'b oooxb ^Tkj ooolg^ojo *aKnj 

matP^o peart <tv^« ^rm «o<rnUi oworwrro; «cr»i© ©-cm a 

armjoii migaeh eaoiwa^a »mt»b J^yxnn^ anuKo^ aaoj co*^etV4 

Qjcn •tc^m:e<9s^a*i«o9 mie'^doo. fUdjtQiWl 

a/laanmmP wnojow wcojUs ^asmva. afl m,xxo 

u^lajmneqM allilnk amoaiorfco ooojya^^ •watfWt 

•a>2 wca>^w eioirtlcnVan# <xXiditaTVti o^(m> 


•taanrt aanils* a o*a*h ni^iup^o ait®"*; aoa tl !lrt »>“ 

MfqttlaWm -om amirem. MiewoMI f»o ObuWiU may* »***«*» •»'*»* 
ojrfl^y (loirr, qjs! m^n Mtsatfaflfeo djOtfttfto <***■ mo* >JT» 

•m wl «B|* ^aaco, ooona £ *-'- rie ' 

f ! aja^i a;»»m >usi airaefflira. Moatofco asVtfarMk «»M*| e>a-%<v> «9 
Marita r> «o a M«no«o floflln >«caftao* (JIM) «oaj"<nv^ifc 

annllj^-ja. •eolnm aonT®*!^ *rfVr>tta1 o<Q.. «*> B oyotoWCj. ••a**®*** 
aSfcji<*i »c-e.>x»a+i a»*oUai*nf> ao». 8 ^b ©aimW* «njw«*l 10 ^ 
®ni5 a^oaim ffoascs *»:<* “i**)*** «*■* -JJ''- »' * Si HjSi* 

p.<ra > or- © : sj^j •MMNpM a^jgo axtf aCTfiaTat.coM. 

«*k> «r* r.^ «m*?, oorflnl <1© tW mt>OJ «#criUl 

miCfl AMn«B fiojart* aocuj Mc^ aTlsoTiWWao. k* 6> ajltct«n>a*a am a«(nxn! 

cn> «iaj cifao^ otaiVtWw. *»5 ai*** «*v*fi&*ft •oftjfiMOD. e<wflor*o 

Oii^= o&ljt JJfcjD OBIOI a^O^C ea^» OaIO'I® «<■* aTtoATUA 

mVr» aoiL^rra «a«<-n>c* (a^aiaa^oMP or «oca>a$a*ftr*< a5 ^ 

<t^ »)3aixfi<Tlaffts» (oo^sfiT^Gs) iSvsmaiYA r>> ®<ts»m>:i*-ia\3l£*«*. 



Mutt, im 
Ro®«; inroot; oprcot 

8i*». uattr lh. Iro. truuV fifilfM 

Btarap; It il* tul 0 Mup 
Lo**»>»; to gry* gr«n 

or fn»ii» ilroppioff 
J!o»czj flo**7 leaf 
Prut, tmrrtM 

FmH to ripen; 0 rn to rtp«* 

K«r«*l; etooe of aun^o; your toil ju*t 
SaoJ; totov; to plmil 

Bark; outar bark; pith 

Oorm; V»i; tbeot 
Pbrifc of & tool 

Calyx, po'.V:a . autkert *i>3 Mmmu 

Art/ pniii. 

Oa^I (crotn^o); aa*, ^aao. 

•Oj*; lagiM, 11 * oXtfW, »°-* ffi 
ja; Oaiaiis? ©>s naoV*j|®«i (B’Q 
I- aal&). 

o*^, oa*, 0-oa.iM; ^i*aolii1>r> aja. 

S”tf» | o-:<L(fi*>. 

«<*a; «=9 BaJiriW 

»Aia<r, digj»o>. 

rao/la*-* Ijoimo,). 

*4> aj®>! »«•»• 

.id), <u»n, aitfo; 

^«ia», <uv*0>i /•'• 

oT«»a «rej 

•«. «OOrfli oJ'VO*. ((Cl^JI. (0>m i oltnoiw, «u>^*); mj*, 

Itiosan^; ajooOBCfil!, uaia); «so 
■» (ooau). 

ia tta**™*; o^>(b a"ij. 

(O* (worry). (BOgfl 

CBJOa'I; ojusvo (a^BmjiS'l a^ouiliw); 

“4®'*' »4“ or * <H r,ra ‘ T a> 

a-^Bfco* I®*#). ®:*jl®*irf) grin frail) . 

U4J«<0, o^aolj fl/lo, 


To bUfioit; ftvAcr-t*.nc* 

TU> rnklo of planrt * trcoJ plu.nuin eort 
lavartl Jtjiv nf IrMi 
To b? or fr<\t 

T«g4iablu»; Qrctui 

A our<4rf of f*lm pUati 

87, cf\ .wjjstnin a.<y<r> ■ino'orruol^.D^ ^ a_i=4rr>oralarjf>e aojj 
a»ijs«3>>sn} coWul>d»4ioj“<; A* you wont to tho town without my permis- 
sion, yon sbsll l>o punished. 

83. aiDOKib <o>^l 2 J.rnl»-ni(».Tl y exroo otioIooto aoj^o esjrol 
oKmgofAosni 6ra>n6 ajsrril fcoo^cssje^ i3voi«im ajl^asa^ As bo wm 
a mm who did not know anything about the raanugenient of coffeo-worki, I 
•out bin owst withoat giving him employment. 

69. m) ogjKOT) a^o Ocrj^ oobfw >on> ucib ar^JWdXosiis a^lo ioyo 
o(J)<rri!o!) rcuooaomo g.4V*o<d»o As you are one who doei not love me in the 
hait, you will always mistrust me. 

c^j aot ni all, not tie Wit, not » rettent (tt| a Jtttfe) = OSJ 5 * ItV'/ 3 * 

90. fiSltaaiocOa ojsn)a<r>| <rftA^»Mn92»4>oerft grog) eoj 

^soi mUsi»6o<M cMhnl 0a_i3O3 At yon have not attained 18 years, your 
strength it not sufficient to do that. 

§ 1 18. Ex. 87. 89 show the Negative form of ti<« Adverbial Parti- 
eipU (§ 76), of the Adjective Participle (§ 88 ) and of the Personal Noun 
(§ 96). Aa to tho Negative form of the Adverbial Participle (oxotoo! 
oia») eqo BUI added to the Infinitive (*>) or the erode form of the 
Verb. Thus: iir^iifloiia.*, miciWrou, etc. oeojflb ^inno ajivati Iji 

*n «, b *.»a:* *a‘l^ Witbmit oimUj to ms ho pUffd with the other ohlllron Verba 
ending in a, (mm®, e:?®, ®wlo*<s., «««) drop ® and join 09410 to 

tho crude form (old Infinitive). Like the Positive Adverbial Participle 
the Negative Participle aUo iiM a temporal or instrumental signification 
(or points ont the mode in which something lias been done) and is 
followed bv a Finito Verb. This shows that the Adverbial qi»« 
(§116) ia only the Negative Adverbial Participle of es<* used as an 

In ex- 88 we have the Negative Adjective Participle In 

all these forms on» indicates the negation and instead of ®*o here .a or 
oe. (more frequently) is added to the Negative Infinitive •o.-i’eu. o#x©, 
thus wcrflunoo, oasioa, In English this Participle 

corresponds to a Participle (oqgaolaw»n» «n» «o^rf> um taring . father) or 

to an Adjective clause (acua^nueo OMfWsan ff < 0^,-0 the min do*, ui 
-*« i lh< BIVW). 

Ex. 59 introduces the Negative Personal Notv i *Tv 0 rfia.iooQj*. It 
is formed from the Adjective Participle bj adding the Personal Pronoun 
•, muO., (thus: ao»le«o»a,m, •ocfloiasa.*, ooigp^a; Plural 
<u!®l«.isQQ;a, o«iia:«»aj). Of course, also the Negative Participial 
Noun can he declined and is rendered in English by a Negative Parti- 
ciple with a Noun (■unAtoa^'ta* u ■obwoniog «isia> or by an Adjective 
clause containing “not" (ife* -bo »« r). 

g 1 19. Qo-ttM (ex. 90) is derived from a^.^o., aojtwm. 

®u;<ac) io entsf , go Bioog, i an. «aOoe. a<j>ci like e** is the Negative Future 
(ixao, ©?•). and means: <*«• pot «it, w *.«.». It is the opposite of 
m<m) vnotifc: f. e., <sg aaV, fjfri' am. lain It a onoogk, I do not »»nt bojiWpe 
mnn ; a® osgiTi nmdi «wT ' To So thH t«o a*n are 

§ 120. In ex. 87 «e for the first time meet with a Passive Voice. 
The Passive Voice is very seldom used in Malayalam, especially in the 
North of Malabar. In translations from Sanskrit and English it is 
more frequently employed. To express n Passive the Auxiliary Verb 
©oj^&b (©i^jon, o’-ij, is employed. This is affixed to the Infi- 
nitive of the Active Verb. Thus: ***?*• 

agj^a., oo.oiac^sa, (Infinitive oa.^). The Passive is con- 
jugated like the Active Verb. Thus: (Present Teuse), 

e^rcna. 0 ^ (Past Tense), (Future Tense). 

P">. Tenet 
Past , 

Perf- • 

Plnperf. . 

Fut. „ 

Ado. Part. Past 
Ado. Part. Fut. 
Ado. Part. Free. 
. • *Mf. 

, , flu. 

Pt't. .Venn Pree 

. . P<M 

Prcgre stive 

JfcMtv Vu ce. 

mat 2 am lo rod 

, 1 w k-rrd. 

* I hnv* lan lo* m J. 

, ar^oW^^inan I h*d been loved. 

, I »*b*12 bf lotfd. 

having Uti ]<.\o4. 
tc* to be loved. 

•i^uPa.a^trm bm ( U.U. 

\ hfcviug Ufi lO^td. 

fo will h*r* Wjjs *v*d. 

-*, -B no. Uiaj loioS 

—A, — ft mo having be*® lovoi- 
•3£nDWfvajS<TO<nj *to.) 

Potential Pres. 

. Pail , »i P-«*t 

, Pat. , **>»->• 

(PeratMion) arft*fW®^s»* U tn*j be hM. 

Nrctnily n «n > mm be lond 

JUjioaWcjjiioa eight to tM lend. 

Inf. oc^iewo^jt* to be lo-el . 

leap. 1 *• '•'•* 

, II. •^oW« 8 ^8Q^r* be jou lend. 

, III. dUHWfUervgjSla he, tbej et»l) be lend. 

Prohibition 1. ai^^Va.oytserei ihall r*4 to lo-od. 

, 11 *^vntfWe>aj%i»a «»•>. 

[iVegal. Ado- Pari. Past airgodlato^jna ». 

. , , Fat. ••us®"*-) 

, AJJ. Part. Pres- < >rft;atil**®4js:a*<in.) 

, , , Past ttffitffeMfepia*. 

, , , Fat. (d^acfUe^en)^) 

, Personal Soon »*«) 

Kxmcisg 2. 

Where do jot go lot I go to Mb»t Yon »r» nr* lele, I tkteb. I Ml mj braw 
without hoeing taken mj breeMut. At whet tine d» joa teke joar broekfeett At 
lOe’eltok. I euppiao, coo who gc*i to eebool withoel hieing t»k» hit breibftM, will 
net loera lio maob. I tx* esnelliliig, bat It we* aot iu(Tk-xoI After the twin ere 
finUhod, jot will l.e eery liaegrj (I in kungry= aJVodeOO, oTttenn or x|(>na* 

aftejjnl * jomg tuo who etwaiei e.roeetly it able to editor* thel. 

Mej I gin jot *>oelhiogf (a*jB“-> No, I do we like (thet) *t ill. Now I unit go. 
Tutordej hoeing tomo to nboiJ too lete, the erVeolmeiter «•* nrj eagrj with mo Did 
jm get a hmtlegt No, we never gel oor|dral punlihnetit. It wm not to to nj tin* 
Oote beelog tone It t-btol tco let*. I got e *orj eeeer* dogging. Now gee ol quickly I 
I *m .frotd I eboll be Mo lete, wK*t tbell I do then! 

TVi delation. 

oil i^ai'vjao* mob ujyQa ’•o'-m «X Jo-r»n«. ofi aaem «oa 

<n « ot» **>rr»<T B. «>;<** qn&n/c (a/tfMfrflim) «a_is 

cr» (acutrao). •aanaiw afl i?c»ua» *iaT«4i aj®***^* *»*■**• qo** 

if> WVttoe* cmVn qjoWw^ «a 

trm a*)'*! QTlaijrtla»iro. w:ffc aagjc Obf\^\ cO’fc’uy* tajrotftxr. w 

t<Aio> rr?€*r>6% a>**T> aT-**to. axft*irm era 

<vs» «*?3> **Aa**. *0^^* tn^«y» 

Ctx^c'l^j. «%:n& ©o^jtc): aoji<*>fmc. a>xi> ©arvitj e®yQJ<vj®"V»)€4 
OAjm>5«^r| ca *•**•:> «m*o a^ao oasoJ^^. rrfl<nu« 


Bftj, aaaO« AeMaOja ro<l .jorto aiaiqB «o«flim aBflifafkame 

(or o®rfVr*nrTftj). eo:rt oilnt eaiomll.g faiCTg »Oi «1 eo>m 

*> a mrflMiieaVaaa. *aj</u avjic^it^ai (k* $ lot). soi>u> «a:ie 

•donul^avn*. <>■ •'a'o^tao 1 oitem *>►* Oai^.r 

»a uaearfW *«* •«««»<" 6 Ba:aTra<Te. «a.ifn* aaaajrt nJtoadTf 1 
eixxurt •ooj'MojftT'. ora mi* *3 cxs,&.v>h »r* eoiaarftaiuo. duerfU sn 
oTas coxa, am 10 a alii mjaJlawaart*' eon"om a •«•>*" »o»: 
aAifc'moo^jto* «ax 6 *' alrro, aPog eymS'K^'^mainB * 3 osxrt Muo eon 

«mc ul oosftM ®star> seg as'Keia'iaaB 1 ' 1 . nt^M «Mk<*o ar^tol 

o\rfc fflom joefl^"* <cb audits^. B<ril .aOgji* ^an*j« ,u B**fi*m <s>«oi»'° a) 
mtauxb ali<i 00114 *aia>B«Tw «jrr» irTKO/^l^. oJlafn ana* mi* a Ml 

mm **e» aoxtaiVaxa .. 1 ' 1 ©ta™ a« exa» eltf . raayi* m/uilsiltyiaa 
art eoooart 1 ’ 1 asia^aVn ajeW 3 enMgcme •aaeem ^* 3 mignStamrmP* o«i 
Oaoai *n.-a.l “ujifa. no^SHg 1 " >»<m aj-.iaiaea-ftmx'' 1 <rfl» _ .3 
<m iu>^. cnlfeji* bi« aoioowail^ mgjfl ^a»aai^“ ojoaoo (ajoqBaa) 
sc™ «irt alma «jBjbcftmms<B nl oorto j i — *W * dt»oo» aBarA" 3 
o«:,fQ. *0300:00 orytiT «aT jj>io<u# ojaiO^uf fMMca o«an dolour. 

Thirteenth Lesson. 

Season or Cause (72. Part). 

91. ffl5oj^S3fi«n <9>ftP casWcmtxVnxA mkiaio ai?c9»o mcoio* 
O 0 JOA 0 By drinking loddj continually you will be rained at laat. 

BSOilft* = lo U InlUMpUd. 

92. «n>ai6 looiaifi alaiamjon oajdHJrTi i^-}ahtfr>o ©nj:g <oil(t»r4 
fUroaiJCGoeoail tr^lrro Greatly exertiug theaiaelrei everyday both 0 i thorn 
beume rich men- (Indent die Beideo.) 

u>Tioc<B»oiail • umxvuin -*■ rjal 

'* Village. 0 R>/. “ Jodirloua, «o = not (prlTBllra). ** mjeifl + !■ (*dj- Pari.) 
+ enoirt, h« | to. “ BOsa.Tr 10 break, "m* iniide. 0 *mi.^t*Tr a * «a 
Bj» (all -hat U laOli). *' Hlrcaalf. 11 Sea 0 III. “i **«.. 1,1 •tflwaa.'l hard. 

Ul Deoaiie. oa«t)i* whanawTer. 1,1 Oppertonlly. "' eoojos -f B«* 

(H+ea^se; »oj*b.r«-ladindjel.. "* See | 111. "’Tkeoih.r. - In reinraj tn 
uehasgo, «ith Dal. * J Sea 0 1U aa noob ai alUurfl^ (tboagM) h»a. Wfce. in- 
talligeni. 1,1 cn^^j i N 0 ill; aooiQ tralda; ojnio a u Hide; Inin: led (or» 

nam or mmoo. Ptaih. w mi f 181. w meed- 

1,1 Tba bBu of a naogo. 

93. gyi enjio Q^Pjoa^o'/o «rar»nvol*«D*<m cooitmailroDch 0,-5 
ooojo aSlgmiacgocol By continual diiobodisnce this mau ha» boeome very 
poor. (Dutch aieht geborchen.) 

§ 121. The Instrumental Case (§ 73) may also bo employed in 
connexion with the Participial Noun (<\f. the Preposition "by" or "in" 
before a Participle in English). "Instrument'’ ami "Reason" or -Con. 
dition" are similar notions, and so in changing the instrumental phrases 
above into subordinate clauses, nc have to begin with "because” 
(“weil” and "indem”). Thus the Instrumental Particle <m&oi may 
also be employed to indicate a Reason (ex. 85. 88. § 113). In the 
same mauaer ia which the Instrumental Case of the Participial Noun 
is formed all the remaining cases can be employed: 

*»iTTo?rr», *^UHnr.»'lr>'tin l • SWmo.'V* (critra), a-lfarrrflBo*, oiloimeilnn &jo 
oc, OitomroTi* mlalm., fttftewmiA™ qstiu. 

We sum up what we haTe come to know about the Instrumental 
Case (<u)3?Icd). 

1. «gg>»a.«icoBim, Ort.iDnJso-i *»&.*•<« (w-*!* urtbM 

•rrpaom:c-^j ausrtaj anfiba Xc4 fcj lua. Ui by iward uolj lo 

<>M<i»irod hi" bi)mdI>* This is the Instrumental expressed in English by 
"with”, "by", "by means”, "through" (in German "mit", "mittelst”, 

2. eosxuMM* *rfVaTrt» aj^jon nrb I id u«- 

■crihy is li*. .po. ihi. ^nh cr.*u.i by OoJ. The “author of an uction” in a 
sentence, with tlie Predicate in the Passive Voice, takes the Instru- 
mental Case (English "by”, German "Ton”, Greek ue6 and spb; with 
Genitive or Dative- Boms discipulus laudatur a praeceptoribus). As 
to Passive see § 120. 

3. S"0 Musi* «xC> itryu'aoi <xr.:*t<. la 1 .hall look »ft«r Ihil -6^*0 
aJVnoifl) an F.ll.v me. Ill some phra&e* (aiisruii, oaaiict, ^emeu) the 
Instrumental shows the character of a Locative (oilmilat, w*D«*) or 
stands in the place of au Adverb of Manner 

«. «ioie>a~ eam u):oi.'oini.s *jnioTi Instrumental denoting the 
material of which something is made (English "of’; German "von” 
or "aus”; Lat. Ablative; Greek Genitive). But «A3sn| with Accusa- 
tive or Nominative is more generally used. 

§ 122. In ex. 65. 91. 93 we met the first time with the Auxiliary 
Verb Oojjo, which cannot always bo translated by “to go”. In gen- 
eral it indicates that the action has been perfected in the Past Tense, 
so that it is something like forming a Perfect. In 

(oJi^aoxatt tho word indicates that the action has taken place or will 

Uke place Tiitliout oar control, so tlmt we are at a los3 to alter any. 
thing in the matter. After is>^csi) it is very similar to (ox. 92. 

§87), Only that seems to indicate aa -unfolding’*, "coming into 
existence", iu)6 the accomplishment of the action. 

lc i» finiibtd, ic at dsn*, 
oftcrflo/km Si Ukam*', • **• into axUlanca. 


Of .io peoytf build chair fcoami la thli own try* Thej w mud, nun#, and 
chuna». X» II (bo limbtr. they t*k* 7a*V, Irut (» rod llubor, /A*Jf*»yiu SiJU), tb* Jack 
tree old Aylii. 7he sound** and (to parch In fr«t of Cilia b»M maka it lode T*ry 
P rally. How do you cull lb# house of n Brahman in.l •/ a kin* ? 7k* Viuio of a 
wi o»ll llltu, and that cf a kin? KlffUgam. 7ho bom of a Pariah i« a CborS, the 
Cbarunen lira- in a ChlU. Tli* blaikamilh, ihn goldsmith, tb* oarpsntar. Ika wtitir 
o:d tbs toddy-lrawer latabit a Pura or Kaf . lie laupk-* errant resides in a Vdrtjam 

(PUkArum or Pomatkuru). tb* ordlaary SAir in a Vui «w BbaTanam), iho m»a in aulW- 

Icy of hi* ease* dwoli* la a Iua Tho Srahiaaa litas in a Ilium. NamMlirta eall Chair 
bow* alto Man*. Tho tfaxbOtiri li oC home. Tell tho NMfir to tkoa tho *nnwsy 
oad ihi frvnl yard. 7lt main boSUiui Uaallti Pa^lnniffa^ra. IC mol fee* ih« rifting 
ton. Hw aru ch* thro? roam !n a naclra b»a* e oallod* Tafakkloa, Tekklna, and Padin- 
ilCfa. 7h« CMypu is * Small room fehiad tb me. 7aka ears, *l»a hi* hand will Is 
»t»tered In Ibt h nee of that doer. 

7V*»« Cotton. 

(DC oauatnilti •oa^nrr>«^ajirf Oktt>P 

•s^> asm. £<narnl<r> coo-fc ®©^o Q-flamojs 

«9aftv0a&» c« ia<to5p mnftniri ^vi 

. code aTVjltmo as ttoaftafferi oj^'lcoo'irc* «aj<h 

0>\»mo(«o ctftfm figjo, ftmxifliiffco ajiromuaMrfVnt O<0>oajleddho 

o <» <xjo»ar*rt 0 :xlol a aJQ«c6 ajsis«t». 

(micaxiri) .*&>»• o»jn*5dla$v -»»«a$ca> telo»> a_jvB<xtf3at» <d»£W>to» 
ajixfWt®; *o<n)tu fta^ (Oaoooo mBtaao ajnos), m>xoo 
rtm mva4 Ad» afkjfcye (cactus daiTOo), cntaA 2>Si3TO*l*, ^»aa 

cn>*> of.^AO* ZT) ®»nu> 

noxrflnja* . *^i \ ajftufatOJiffqp $ooa/> 

a ni> wo*, o^Imdk>c^(1 <cto oo_»A. ootOnrho 

o^siaQManmn amoo ast»m». «** afta^acj ^ 

»aajF ajsrit'fc.'n, aoatlft), <o:ftao9son. aajo<flmj aj'<aTa^a o« 
«^o> dgsttftfla v asatv^mlvA coojfr-bo ete tfift 

fl.mn4ano(^\cA oi^obl i?sft In) sq^s^jiao. 


ExraoiB* 2. 
awvA 0 *i StkMi. 


To ria* the bill 
PaMk w.jroblp 

Dlrloo Serrtet 

Th$ Lied’* Sapper 

taptlisi (to tap! be t bo taptbod) 


Lei im prop 

Hymn; T*no; lo oinff * kynrn 



Dbf-»iC:x, The no 

To uk* thi. ooilostioa 

7ieeml; oofto 

CenoUry; tomb 

To 4l|r 0 gTftTO 

To bar? wwbody 

Boordfetiofi i At tbo «nd of Mr* tea) 

To bowl dovo 

EM4f» o/ tb. Chtirab; Pmbjtery 



**>f) «OfCU» <*(•>. 

a^fexom, oyjjis.wo.'rt. 


.tOma-tn:-.'., (~® 

l W :m “ 

>yic<yr> ( pjMui' ?», injcuom a vAo) . 

°' 9 f- *»**•: 

^(irus-o. (^aestoe *»i/W to prmb). 


at^aiao aJWW*. 



cgiocaxTuiiuo; obg^o. 
^OoAqvA At/W 

$ad # ® JWo (tfcjMMfe ^ 
*.re the PfcobyUry binu'i. 

Reodiof l^ion 

To OXCOnaiuuICAtO; Church dboipUoo 

(Ai«>S4gmi<o«*»; (nj*n*,£to. 

«xs<1 aj :a~<3a w«. 


To BAk4 UOA Wrfto AOd f-U 

Copy this Imcod 
Com tut It to (mi>»j 
Stand! 8U doira! 

Bo <\*Hl 

b. 8chooL 

atMPrftKQA Q~**>5£. 

1 QO oj>Oo ijeiexo*. 

OTIAJK* w Qftjaj>0» ® T ^HA. 

BAU?« [MW. 

aloawArfW , seynaiaTrfl*!’, «ros*rfl 


Di no! bo id* 

Bf •ItBOtlTf 

Do iol Into jo«r onfhtour'a oor 

BriBf f»ne£l, io», on.) poo 

eSVanv-acaa, *<taj ttierria.ii. a, a*V» 

qjk. <usr.a. 


©aioilafls* «QS 0 

QJo, Ofrirf QJI. 

94. n?l socorrooldfOOTTg) agy^oiAcemoari' , orj)<re aiu^ai a® 
crmy, aai^sliyO^-joiio, rnWgios *gim a^enW Oooi:a'la.^w 
©AObTK 3(D's>ri\aU«04v3' tsaiimaxi^j ojjjrra srmoab awra>co ajownij 
When my father atlei me ‘"Why do yoo not obey”, I nntrered, “Only b«auae 
I ©oulil not understand what you infant". 

95. ffiat>0£J a®? <i<rn!<da a_>m) ai^aoo) agjcn# ajomrrai 

c-yo&o &iKiv^*4 i^oou ajoswrolencm miicnajo oro^ rcyfcm o®cre 
a^gjMMao . The mccher said : ‘Yesrerday at about 7 o'clock 

the fever abated and (be) recovered”. Thereby everybody came to know that 
thin wn* just tbe time of which tbe pbytiemn had spoken before. 

90. agisoir) oogjOTTlah ^sl aa_io*crn cr»h2a>o rnWro o*^oa» 
CfBcrnlaTB Bt®OICJj®gj§fi>Oiy3o sraiocii ®OJ«JO agjcra 03W30J a JO* 
®*3«rq rtfl 9**£}<jOi3o4 ^OKgjilgj Whilst thou art passing through 
my kingdom I aboil *> anything ncceamry to save thee: each being tbo 
word of the king, you need not be afraid. 

97. sraajniojgtrnor^t^ ^,s'rn5ifl«<rooi)rrnfe»lc4rry*ttlca»o®.a>, 
ojl=*®a a'jcONJO^cy ®*o®^lov<ro?nVnoob *od> m9«oro> 

aTlenj OaJOCol Talking and looking at all tbo bmwee while he walked 
through the streets (town), without taking care, he tumbled and fell down. ol.r-TKo'Itt = iraa,mttlttOo (mattiimo^VO) + BSaalet; ®6 Inlwral 

ef lima or ipaio, oisailoo. 

99. omao tomlccjo aoaJ*o fiensoAoo^o rn)flro«i®9 sim/sia^ 
o<e»§ rnka\rnu>o ajsrol ®arg:xih ua'/lmoc^cosejo m^cM avQOo <|o 
orokA mScOaoo A» we have still more time bofore cs and you, being ill, 
cannot do any work, we may walk to a great ditto DC*. 

99. wmaioi ®ot ®a»£fid»3®mo*®*osnj o iWoojtd ®aJol^ s«mo 
*4!*osnto -wraoicre ^n^asnlciBo * 5 ?.a{c jogj 3<s^®*o<in* o eiaQ*^. 

ao)3*J Bfltng a European, wearing shoes, boing 

without the sign of ashes (on the forehead) and the tuft of hair (worn as a 
caste distinction), poople Icokel at him and wondered. 

loo. ©<t> *o> (X-.-rvooct*) *riejyy£,f03Cjo waojerw 8AM«m 

ajwimio 2?SJ tf&owcj o araoicifi illQj*<r> eddd^jonb rmcnl 

iS*OCol act oitfl ««amj.yu!fMo As this man is no* wealthy and bis nothing 
to eat or to drink, he will seek for himself a way to save his life 

§ 123. Ex. 89. 90. 94—97 represent a new form of the Verb; it is 
called the Verbal •Venn, bearing the double character of a Verb and 
of a Kotin. It expresses an action, but is employed as n Noun 
(*8». f)j **>'**■, moscoW, aj*®). As to its form this Verbal Noun is 
identical with the Infinitive of the Verb. The examples show that 
these Verbal Nouns tiro governed by a subject (*»ot ex. 95; «oa>nl ex. 
97; ttMia* ex. 96 ; s b nn. 94), that they have even an Object (mn» 
cx. 95. ex. 96 •e'lO* ox. 94) and to partake of the character of 
u Verb. They are rendered best in English by u Finite Verb. 
Nevertheless they are considered to be Nouns in Malayalam, for' by 
adding **<« or oa>o« we form Instrumental Cases (§ 73. Ex. 61). 
(For other cases see § 129, etc.) Thus: eotrt »o v 1 )* 9 ® a»cri> 

at oa«a <~an% aOrfl. llere we may see Tery clearly that the Verbal 
Noun ns n Verb has its Subject (a*.*) and its Object (c^eaaa), stall 
it is in the Instrumental Case. 

§ 124. In § 118 we met with the Adverbial Parliciple (mu'oi, the 
Adjective Participle (o*oia»| and the Participial Noun roint«narb> of 
the Negative Verb. All these forms are taken from the Negative 
Future which is used but seldom in colloquial language and 

poetry. To fill up the want of other forma and to enable us Ic 
conjugate the Negative Verb the ending of the Present Tense b<t» (for- 
merly «(n») is affixed to the Future a. no.- (derived from a Second Future 
oq). ano+j™«iait»u<m I ««mci cone (Present Tense). The Negativo 
Verb aiuw*»™ is conjugates! according to the rule laid down in §75; 
hence Past Tense aioie»j t did do*, cone. In the next chapter wo shall 
hear about other forms sometimes needed. Ex. 98—100 show the In- 
finitive or the Verbal Noon of the Negative Now a-oic**, shortened 
into aarn^. So also rvy^.'Ucg,, wajxtfaaagi, *iAai 

®« uoibiq, etc. As tlie Negative Verb of *?«> is a«i (usually shortened 
into ««)), its Negative Verbal Noun is rt^yg and in the same manner 
the Negative Verbal Noun of aw* <(>•»>«) (ex. 99. 100). 

§ 125. To express Cause or Reason Advent us well aa a.® oh 
may be added to the Verbal Noun (ex. 94. 100). So again, what in 
English must be translated by an Adverbial clause is only an Instru- 
mental Case in Malayalatn (<jib*m>:*») or an Adverbial phrase fonned 



by a Verbal Nouu ami an Adverbial Participle (09*0*0*9). Ex. 97 — 
100 show that and may bo used in cxchaugo (just so in 
connexion with the Noun § 73). Still there is a alight difference: 
«t $ o& especially points out au instrument (rendered in English: “by 
taying”, “from that”, ox. 94. 95, “iri saying”, etc. German: itrob, mden 
•r diutAgt mg tun * ami), by which something has occurred or been dono; 
in awi points at the reason, cause (English : “on account of the say- 
ing”, “because”; German: “wegen”, “weil”). 

§ 126. There appear again (§ 103) some Verbs which govern an- 
Other Case than in Euglish. o«uki51*h is construed with Dative: I 
undent lid <<n\*a *«j:u5Wrr». Qjlc^4>Qrrra t mb hungry. 

aXicra I *n ihiMiy. (aiiifl) ojbslagji I tr®< tour. rru\to)&£ 

1 foi. *o. In general «icti md^ro, but, of course, ayrfi*# 

§ 127. To the Future of the Adverbial Participle («^»^yt</.§69) 
ta>r»*. may be added ex. 100. This Adverb oojmfl (“for”, u ftir”) is 
added to the Dative to complete its meaning m fl taml* aa^rrfi 

oaj^ i(o d;d u fee im § 115. 117'); in the same nay it is joined to this 
Adverbial Participle to lay a stress on the design or intention contain- 
ed in it. cnflra OdWB^gjOCl4 OOJSTbI Jmui Cloi Icmto di. 

lu ex. 96 we see that by using the Dative of 0*3 in connexion 
with the form marfa#** ( = a*afo*«n» §52) intention may be ex- 
pressed, thus o<Oxi)oa>f5r»f7)Vrra s is nearly as much as 

Soiwdl, fajwrfl. 

These two forma must be employed for all the English sentences 
denoting an intention or a purpose, usually introduced by the Conjunc- 
tion “that”, “in order that”,/*. 

1. ®o dicmlfcmcrifa^cr® 

*®OX* UrftD. 

. - Ho that b© mlcbt ihow this took. 

2. a^TT^OkO AlfTOli-Vfc •OJCTOI 


But in English “that” may ho omitted and in Malayalam the mere 
Adverbial Participle will do; f. e. 

«o.* «jon" »w»i-n onn II. mu i. «~i m.. For auntmn^ and o!<rai 

see § 136. 143. 108. Remark. 

§ 128. Ex. 06. 97. The I’aat Tense (or the Adverbial Participle) 
of the Verb e,* (§116) (like and oml^) take3 the place of 
the Preposition "through" in English. In connexion with the Social 
Case it is like «*s and «s and means “along with’’, “with", after the 
Locative it is "us much as", "through", “by way of*. Thus: oo 


©s~* B/i«* »««j ihli e»rgo bj »»y af Hid riter Alwj 

©•« instead of ©si may be employed. 

Ex. 9" show* further that the Locative of xs (sea ex. 95) tosai^ 
in connexion with a Genitirc means referring to Time "daring", 
“whilst" (avxnme'WnvtOinftsrftfe wbilu h. »f»ala; B oVb tarlii lk ")l 

in reference to place it means "among", "between": max* d^whs 
*sa»lf* ns<iB Ub Ii*v4 »iwog iUibvsb; cnajos B5itfit*«o<o*n»)irollBiitcoe bewetm. 

Prei. Time 
Pau , 

Put. . 

Ptrf. , 
Pluperf. , 

Ada. Pan. Part 
, , Put. 

AdJ. Part. Pres. 

. , P*« 

. » F*l. 

Part. Sous Pres. 

, , Past 

Verbal Noun 

taper . 1. 

. II- 
, Ill- 
Passive Voice 


.yejutiu r«rt. 
flr^doho»C— . 

ana«f'««m<n» (uMaiu 

aid noi lorn. 

Jir^ao’eio^D fuMdiu lUttl); a-l^oiflail 

» «•;***> rt> at on . 

J nS‘ fl 3 <Zt iTO , 






en£aifl»>a 9 »- 

«*itf q<r», elo. 

arqpoW.a. iTgooVeBigV*, a^x(tM*««. 



l. Of length 

a) For timber, etc. «.&> ©MMaai. 

Vaunting rut = «<i>» (28 lOfbas). 

1 Kol -«• afl*a. 

I Foot = miO. 



4) Cloth (aril 

Ltnj'.ti fr«i ik» elko* to •ml (fcnurin) c k>*> (<ga* «'Oia»), (J#j. 

2 avium «• 1 QJM* 

c) A general measure, 
i lud'i Mopl. = 

Tl- oimuun of a uul silrndtd "rtia — e>c* (fallen). 

1 •»«» = *uo 4 . 
i !/**•= i fft (?a>). 
d) Distance. 

1 Mile = 1 (rttrfl* (e$ii, «le. 

« (Hiijlo (6 Zngl. mllei) = 1 e*mo or (relied a Com). 

1(10 fTOt/W — 1 O'ill'*. 

2. Of Surface anxCm-ss*. 

.Hjnaren: 1*390. 

IS 1 owe -aJj)Q£ 9 : ™ IS »»t«re kol. 

3. Cubic 

1 kll rrfla° (lraglh), 1 k« 0,1*1 <br.Wlh> end 1 W1 e-m (Ihlokae*). 
■Ho ojv. = 4 opih; *h*oio- breidlb. 

4. Measure of com, efc. w>rr,«Mi oa a* 

3C0 emroBtfl (.'ontnpii _ I jjo-s (ramde). 

- ««**$<* = 1 *19 <*)akk»). 

t ilaklu 3 1 cvca (uiakks). 

J I'lalti - 1 aril (erl). 

t IfH 

- 1 <mf\ (BilQ- 

2 Bill — 1 toot (tor). 

«»*u =1 

8 cc 10 ZtUofAU = 1 a_*o (para). 

15 w W i?r alfS 

60 I«!*«ir*l» or ICO if* = I *!*>• («ttk«). 


Fee meoaaring milk, ott,etc. ^*4, <033 tnaatoji ni. 

(4 ilitti = l ftrfl («l). 

1 Url — I (MQ, 

« srcii i Aorfl tkurrry 

1C kultl — I <u«*o (pfcUn). 

1 Vtuiuai {corn of rtioj 
I ftaomBQi or vl^nn 
t Kanni 
S Hfti\}fc£i 

10 w 3a P**tttiikkA® 

S E.tlnaiu 

4 K*r*bfc(n 
4 P*W« 

SL RAettl 

50 TxlMD 

51 Tula® 

6. Wify/ib a<**- 

• 1 oJliAo \vlinn) 

= i ♦rnl (k«Mi) o*4 ran 1 1 k<*J. 

=* 1 ZW.'S\ (a* 1 j Jdi) 0 Amrt 0/ Iron. 

• 1 *jCTr>s 2 j«*« <p*n»uukkAtt) M^Ai a #old Pauoai 

= 1 tiaUi'iLtl, * J/£(hK 

= 1 ^dfe* (lL*?lh»»). 

= 1 (r»Ua). 

— 1 mothiI (filial), a pound 19 c*%u*. 

« 1 ®*m (talari). 

= 1 *><* 

♦«*! (Ml). 

7 . Money <rwwjo. 

a) «*«?>• 

t rian - 1 Oagtf (t«*>. 

>B» - ' *>3fc <““)• 

* m- - I aao-igg <pei*») * !>*■•. 

10 rdw — I ajPOo (puua) 8 u. « pie*. 

» P»p*in = I (topee). 

Jj Bapeee— 1 QJ«ooo<* (p*#«ltt). 

b) acA>i«{a. 

IS Pits *» 1 nan (•?•). 

10 4 on - 1 *QaJ*> (utopjBUJ- 
e) South of Kendoen. 

1 ) Cokran m I a_eni (ng axxmtm-i — a^vCUa a.or«>. 
JJ Puliaapuiia *. UQgjl*. 

8 . Time mjooe 

Th. real «ofl for dap I* rf'.KJOo (mxto, •>B»' *od »j«m u»d b-14..), 
.1 Ike ■ord ft* itU and un nnu a lunar d»r. 

1 (Qjstoi, OUaOJCroaa) 

1 bitoi (alarte) 

l (•**) 

1 o'lXCTUc 

.Viidam- 1 tfloiouo 

1 a-.a. (vaioh) 

1 etm^gfc 
1 tnkilaoo 

a It (aoulk). 

= BO a~)a> 3 tM. 

- Trftaxn*. 

- *0 tmt/lo. <- Ji tnjl. alum)- 

= ti ami' Otnoe (>anr.) Bnrii^fc. 

- i Mirilgg*. 

= 60 afolaes (nlamte*). 

- «o ofcnxA* (mo> ad*). 



Per •BlsplOJ<JS 
Half #n boor 
Quart er of an boar 
What o'clock it II? 

4 o'doik 

Coma ii 2 o elotk 

>: nciiia <JV«®CU> (fro® nfAMare of a fort) •• at 

3 Indlen hoart after tho turn of ar*a 

U «pk;id. 


*a© aftrOaosHp 

av.c; mitTI ar^sTI (avicj ftcrril I «tolf >^). 
•<rf o;imtt>». 

o’cle* Is tha afuro 

Uloduc ateo a fixed neawe of li»a for Ood’r one prWof loing <*H*d <*coo. 
80 yaor* = on# uonth of the gods. 

12 anch aantls =oqb year v v , 

There ara 4 <Sjco«c>»: 

1. ^or5|cr.c *4,8^0 diviM y«rs (also axo*,qjc/x), 

2. 0<5®^accc - »,000 t , „ 

B. ejiaj - 2,400 „ H ( 4 Vinal4* age). 

4. Atjia*C0o •1,200 „ „ (Irca age). 

Tirana: csg^o-a day of Drabmi, namely a f«ried of 4 (or tren 100) ayco**** 
420,000,000 year*. 

Extacisi: 3. 

Otfffollfe* of load. 

Malabar is divided into Taluks, tU TniukB are again divided Mo Atnshnaa. Te 
this Atoilaa belong 8000 Paras. OOCO Paras are al prunol uadar eullivatisa, the 
remaining lard la at pnsenc oacoltiratad. Hior is n iaCy ealtlraial in this part of 
Malabo r. Usually w* bnT* rain for six months witboat Inter Mtoslon The rain does 
frontally ooatnance In the bsgfnniag of May and ends In Otcofcer. The rioti plough and 
i&aiura iha Balds hy lha U January, and nfiar they or- wall mfiiitm*d will* rain I bay 
•a* their seeds Proa tbo beginning td April i* tbs and of May they transplant the 
young paddy. When It* rain fails In OrtoUr and tfoveaUr they water tba crop* froa 
»b- porda. Aleut the nine t<a* or a little before they weed the lands. Tbs crop* 
ara gaxsrully rip# in the iscotb of January. Taeo they reap and store them The kill- 
ries Is sowu from the 25th of April to tie 18th of May. It if not transplanted- Them 
are three kinds of land in tlii Amshnm They are divided into 1st «Imb, 2nl slass, and 
3rd olsn. The first class ykkia Ueolyfold, the 2nd fifteen-fold and lha 3rd Un-fold; 
tbm in a good eeuwn a laid sf tba first sort yisMt vfiL lu too crops 40 paras, on* of the 
2nd sort BO paras, and <t>? of the Brd tort 20 paras. Besanim <glxgclly) is alio oaltirotni here 
It is »oan in August. Facade take oil from It. This oil is used for robbing The seed Is 
vary i wall, and so Seas mu* ia prsTerhlo! for everything slight. Land to measure! with 
a rod sf six 5«cL On Mmua, hill-neo, wosaout tree, ketel and Jaek-tro# revenue is 
nne*s*4 and colluded in aionay. Revenue w not lerlrd on any ether trew la Malabar. 



**«?*« ofWs<4\*aa^4VtfWl*v rr^««*c>> ttr.; A »«|:^ ateoufl 

ic*rr®. ®o ■Rv'.atnPiA c^jjiaT. to cujo aftaia flff. cro^ lofloa «v>n rrAti 
<S) «J|j><>) $ 201 ). *ruv **1 rvc «r^oe>* o ♦>so*td. 

*ao:>£ 4 cftaflj &o ai-nqj c ' rr '-'to •&+*• «‘ 4 u<jajra*»®. (rotcittfetmtoaft 

cs(rc<aar^a j Moai’b:'** fliug^ro. fisr cnxcu>T>fmro3^ co.orto cr^i'i 

*»**>* to&MUfffttt * 3 igft<n> <•*» $ 1 H 6 ). £ 

<*aWA em njrflosavco'torria mrjjTOlA QjMj#»oa ft^a o>a£)<j*r». ea A= - / 3fc n 4 
Ojr* B04»>qml imrmosfl rr*n «*:■*) o/Vq* Oj 1» naims. •§ |^)iUo<n>0KA»r(to *T)a. 

b»«A c a aTl axro aftarA o c 02 .cn xr> c a.a* •*£.><& «*>*} aj^H^ m^rre. a]^a:«U 
<*)t\:*Tn‘c^j fr4ia4i>fcA9ntoa«fttjt « v ♦cniakiittm'wm «■»□_« o aoocTi mcwn 

ct^n (O^cwns). #r$ crc««qa «Mnt»t «caa l »aA*| (<gty) ajrflaao*. 

bmooj aVian anftti oil a nn>uj:c mool oThcjjtx. aaoVnrr, ceoaTta 

*v*1uq>**tv>. njtt'ttnty •« r^^aron*. ftfScwOMBis* ftaarttonv* a->i0 

<r>*iiv© qj*o aT^cwsta©. ovf oaal^j. */* cooic<r&1«* oj\ 

UMta» feOTHOlMa, cotton**#, £cnyi*itk» ^<ro 

crmsm«oa <J2>fnlc£J 0 oantr^&a ru *Vncaj <tfkrfk%i a-<Q 

a^AaA*<r». «t» ^u:p»7cra:(T* aan>wi^ mlaiqa <x*v aP.ftq)» &z\ m# 

ua ***$• ft******® rtf>ii*a qovmnm <Tfw*q* oj)a 

qjo. BOjVta »ac5" Ga^to. ma®® oJla^aamK <$£*>& 

molomaii^ fccn*>«*<r». «c <*€>oaa)im<* «»£jKm«Ay ZuStuoafi 

C&m. Q^qa c*iC^ OJ«C|Q.CC^ a£ 9 j 0 <L/T£A<>iG*: C<T» oj(/ 

< 4 Mia»^WKm, ofln» OIM *11*1 9 +* *e 4 hi#v **UMnn . -ap**, 04 m* 

ft o^sg, ©a>rk-fltu, Q_Tlaj:aj xojo.oV t» Cft)cMn) ®cO>5<£)»C5^o o_,*na>tffl aHi'Bi 
q ^ td . »cj»oi t«»V*i arx* »onow» mW*! b»*. 


Nam* (ia Fra&in C 7ei»i, F**t Toosa. FuUrc, Forfwl, Flupcrfirt* tU throe Itnpere- 
t ves, tbr Adverbial Pint end Pnture Partlriplee, tbe AdjwliT* (Mrlklplc^, P mil Xi»ee, 

and V«rl*! No*n af |ba Moving VcrUe: 

1. S. ao^2 # i 3 - •!<rc®*, 4. A. eveicgo*. ♦. a_>o^» 

1 . Gai?*, S. •<^nn'a». t. Oita#, 10 . *\n+ t 11 . 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

Condition (2. Pari). 

10 1 . a_) 30 »^ 6 nj ^a^GJDca oroajoi Bmtjiiil 

aw cro Q^)0b)fijo (Btogsi^oBn^ owaicTO a^gjo aonJo rfxlgoc^ca'jii oaj 


iSurTVOtatanio 6>xgo aifldo ■iijrovrv.zoml <m)<ra He has woven fiao 
long clcths and other superior cloths, bat m ho did not gain anything la doing 
so, tho wrniar or his livelihood hi* become very difficult for him. 

a-coj n weaver'* warp, * flat oioth; ajiafic* aj»»ana® i« a *«Pi »-<> 
Ojsoqo (afl^e-) to itrolghte* ib* tlteid« of a »»rp with * tvuiU; eojj weaver's rwd 
or Mj; «:■» wearer'e ilotllo, mep » Bo* long <Mh| of)*.e*i. 

•u^ror, tiiooriiiar]’; ©-ncgme. on*^, **>■%• to weave; wearing; 

uwf gtis; loom a ,& oj a88 0 M *t ,t, i ■** *® 

rotsivs; guifkumc, woiaot^cal livelihood ( c^oTi aTo» >»■ JS7. 

102. .••a.dMaiacii ajoltyoci osimojoiDab a_io)«.o*«ri*)" o;$crenQ 

o_]94'(iiljic£> ^amo ©ooomaroni (wsxrbo dmonroVre oi«tcm ooWri 
arc (rt 31)1 a>ao ‘He who !«rns to *tcul must Uuru to be hanged" according 
to this proverb everybody will have to buffer a punishment cocr«iCB<iing to 
hie crime. 

3«oi,rrs, sajirn, a**ajej a.e««aoe* = uiu -t- a<ue:t, ®a»« from aucaja 
(Oaj:a») to epeolaold isjloj, proverb. 

103. HaJenooitrll fr>fflrmaAa& oimroft) omens" og)<no a-ioswraDcA 
(TX^tOO Or Cl <ny a fTVj ao'.Tl 'TO «'4rB Bil t* WlOtJlCli <TX7^ «>5 8>B:il<V\iC«SCO 
OOJ«rilO<U>ao A3ofT)ldM3T.30AOSn^ ^.^jOSlcoleA 0tT)3aWai3ai SlfcOJ 
owilpj; S2? rtwooiftnl .macro zml&o&o *If you h*«o a good friend, you 
do not need a looking glam", this meow: if we have au upright friend, we will 
not require to look into a mirror, as he (the friend) will show us our appearance 
aa Ur a* necessary. Thus tho friend will be sufficient 

eol -nocjb; RtOoe te to tufflolwti to m»te an ved, p«» a stop to 


§ 129. To form a Conditional Sentence tho syllable and the 

Particle aj)Hh>3J arc employed. o^cA i* only used in connexion with 
the Adverbial Participle Past Tense (mart 4*01 *\R«o|«sd 1arimn.11 
oflmj, ortyariW). <n H os' sasiri o'lnefia.i'iij). So in Malayalam even 
condition may he expressed by mere d exion of tho Verb, without 
employing a Conjunctioa ("if”, “in case of"). may be added 

to Verbs in any Tense, ns it means "so if” (see § 134). Ex. 103 
shows the Conditional Particle after a Present Tense. But wo can 
also bear: ajuaetbo 02/D4 (O.nsvo) snKjjlajaola* qQaWA ajfiaa mj 
OmnanSio gSTOOcOvO We ehell te wr* jle-1, If jew Will b. fsveariblj UcIIoed towards 
liai| Ml* It JIU »ho» » MadaeM (tliosjll a lindnau) towards Ifcii nan, there will t« 
great jej. nfl c j «•**:•* esnt atom i*WW> If 70a do till, I ih.ll punish r°u. 
In Pust Tenso Bad occurs more frequently than *1*1*. As tho origi- 
nal design of *3** is to denote an Instrument or a Cause (§ 121. 73), 


ia connexion with a condition rather points ont the ream on 
account of which the action of the Finite Verb can be performed 
or not; a^sAbb expresses the pure condition on or the rose in which 
something will happen (J.t . a-nfW** Dnima,:* .-uo'isa.imo means 

If jou taka 10 ilMltsx, )W mil t« prijonil 10 bo hnnjod). Bat although 
reason and condition are relatives, we must ho careful in distinguish- 
ing and skiers if added to a Verb: f.e. o«*aoi» 
means: Maw hr i~rn«J (Id rsaUir) to •leal, ow. If we use ®jei there is not 
a real statement, but onlj a statement in supposition ; /. e. (Sraoinh 
So c.3jaiii (sin) ©ojeojori ffirnl Orrjjao^jxA a®rolu» ojd 
slgj. This new form of the Verb is called the Conditional, f.e. 
is called the conditional of MgacftM. 

§130. Indefinite Numerals as well as Adjectircs, Adverbs, and 
Adjective Participles may be used as Nouns or Pronouns simply by 
affixing the Personal Pronoun. Thus: (•, ao> become ao»a>tih (or 

atom* ex. 68). aiaojtfo (acMRl): 3CTO « m». • a ihlig. aaOOJ (or 
«i»q:*o>) o'orr, «*cb becomes aooooavonnnfc (ex. 102), aouoocnaroil (§ 85), 

ait<mira aiary » (mu, or wo maul, avorjlhiag; o^^jo («SI), o^ejoaid all poopM; 
a_iej (maaj), ajfild (mu* [*oplr|; ajlei (midi, before a Noun), aftnb <inn« 
ro:sJ*.i; gj^J (any, before a Noun), Jnya^e, cuuo,*. o*ja ■“» un * 1““ <* 
anything; OT fa : (Qllla), BYO^dBai, (uuplcioiuj, otfc,® (llltl'Mia, 
ntUMii)] /. e. atrmto nr^rath sjToaai^ rc*»na ■aspam't'4* n<Yo>*i4'l^ 
Taking ™ for -impiMM. (bo> dimgardad u. The Pronoun CaafiWJOl consists 
of <3^ + am. a>a aa much as >43 (see §97) and waona means •*kst 
a*, before a Noun and oiaw,® also may be used as Indefinite 

Numerals or Pionouns=«.j (thus: mdd:o ao#«. any fruit); snanmt, 
cb».di^i.jd'', s-joaiTB eay onr (u»a or woman), ujtblag. Therefore oos^xte, 
06) DMb nff at all. & 0 in 0®“) 3010)0, o$2°, ojciato, Q)gj2°, coositno 
rrao etc- is generalizing. See §137. 

§ 131. ojjycra ojrwormjci are the introducing words for giving the 
definition of a word or sentence ; f. e. gjIoq joomo o(J)(n» ajoovmaiooi 

®«aa)CJra\a^£!e OSJCOJ-QO fallb roian. la Qod 

In x similar manner also the phrase ngjirestaiajari (of §114) 
may be employed; /. e. m™ou^> iK* mraei** of tk> u» 

KarDB»s«r.a, Also a(j)(rY>2 may be taken for introducing an explana- 
tion or tbe definition of a word. 

Aa to the Auxiliary Verb ©omo* we may continue what was begun 
in § 114. 

1* «*B o^fjo&n* flOo •©niton 4»‘iV aS9^a*our**a-«®' •aijjiuol® <©™ 

*afhg| u ® «elore4 kin to lata tbat moulaln, rarry ll to iouo plaro far away, plaoa II 


thtr* ani <*** This example shows that as a real Verb it means: 
“to put”, “lay down'*, “place", “deposit". «wai<to aai^jg o?.**©*! 0»« 
cannot hi whit aho oiotttf. IP ^JtnT\a% £4nMtft cajtxaims (Wo) suit eiifiUy tl rw 
utei for db work. There are farther phrases like: ®a/£Vi>a*» <ah«t); a 4 <qfi 
»oja» (fti fot); oi»cj* *01* (get ttm« r ) »u. Thcso examples show some of 
the meanings of ooior as a common Verb. 

♦. na>£» as an Auxiliary Verb: 

O) nu^Q^n ivinotms »i-<nacLijy »oa.ot)n o?lf^ cfeQiraA ftwn 

Ooo! Raring Ukan it islo lUlr taied* to Kail away crcrjtfaing iu Clio boasr, tho tblorr* 
nui.lo a Ule It tho vail Aid ootorvd lii* boose. 

©o eior&D dkao&tan adiraaaiv) Micro ooi^ giaisg^ (Sbe) tain# under 
the Impression list tbit animal hoc killod htr child, woo grtorod. 

©2 m<*» flO;^ Tiling it for (supposing it vat) gold. 

In these instances the meaning is: “being under the impression", 
“supposing", etc. 

b) = *aTO or above. Now and then 

it is also as much as •a*™***;/- e. tftgiwO© ***» &y* «*o*o a-.v* 

^4aaa-Cvt*vb“i <*Tl®a How di!&a:t my orumionos* will borono, In coio I do 
not gat vtrkl 

c) It serves to intimate that an action has been completed “*o as 

not to be undone"; J \ e. csk'qj ©c ©i ru<**w Wag kM put 

down tb? robenion dK*h«4y. In the same manner: «uk *j*t« daoidadiy. 
Especially iu connexion with «t»*A and cr&nfl ao>^ is frequently seen, 
snajp^ ectfl ©noil appointed him a counsellor. 

(/) Very often implies “to leave" (cf. after having per- 
formed an action; so especially in tho phrase: 

CHOjA *>>(X4nfii| Thor Sift tka Ocnd todies burtid. aj<me aoajftlirt 

GMSttgacciij (oo^cBi-f aaj^l l ‘posited tko a>:roj la hl» baa4s. 

Oaro It up. ©UKlfl Aft or haring j-rf.irn.*! tin. murdrr, tb *J run away; 4$ 

much as: ©At<x» ao^>xn®»a«c^. <m>3<l> 3 oftMR) cn^ido oOT7i cvaiO^OaOft 

God way k«op (racial too io. **-*<& A«k*d and want avay (not wiping 

for an M*w#r). 

§ 132 . 2«mtao<a, (ex. 103 ) ahow3 that the Copula ia also 

employed to form compound Verbs, thus <»>©<»«*. moans t# »«i cat, 
tn^lcaoa* to>* .ufflrd.nt, QgJ20A <o ka k«il*J, gJSjVnOiOi t* bo iil<sfi*i. EvOP 
a Noun in the Locative Case is made a Verb by affixing ©a**., namely: 
(fco^avtaioco) as much os owuxifl^. Also the Transitive forms of all 
these Verbs may be used; thus «*i> »>*« to i*t aumco. to not* an o&d of; 

made hlmaetf n?qu»«liit«d with. Mark the phrase tiryaxm 
<U<*ffiXX>\ (or Ut 10 Johr alt; ha m Uq yarn Of nga). 


Iu a similar way is affixed to the Infinitives of some Verbs 
in order to form compound Verbs; f e. *>i<iro»l |V»«« -mbit), <*« 
BKoflaion (hw lo k.u). Frequently after Negative Adverb « fl ovoidl 
<■111 a, «ieaii <i\t to. In a similar way also waJ" serves to procure 
compound Verbs: i-Aoe- nai^ w iwo-e; mucjxn, o*>& (maujnrfW* 

to i»ko«iCT«io»i, on oai^ (to nuiiiar). In Sanskrit sails*, and .acid* serve 
the same purpose (see §221). 

§ 133. In the phrase emoato annm- cei<*o (cx. 102 ) qio)<& is an 
Auxiliary Verb and expresses us much as “answering to" (“enUprc- 
cbend") or as much as enxvmOcnbo wloa or «*x>o»in»aB ciloa (see §204). 


Oit JVovtrte. 

Are there nony pro-erte In the MalnynUm bi|U|il There »re . gnnl wny «f 
lb-1., iiS.i.I, Go yen loll in* tome of iMml With noeh pleunre, I abiUI (Ml wine— 
SKtAOrailgOOt oJ'IOTHoVboo. Wint U lb- nunlng rf Iklif 

Tbe nonninr of end .ijoro yon kiio», I think. *5* (BQ. B90) n*»r« »i 

murk u ouo.. Tharobro, Iht nomlng of Ihle pro-erb It thin "If «e pat ■ob-iIiIb* 
Initio, (oeple noy ire sod k»» It from eotoldo. < If »■ f<*I Inl.nw grief. II fn.1 
bnxj DKiood). I like lo hiur Ibeoo prerorM very moib; do yoo know naotbor one? 
fiB*jfruliy3cb ST^fO©® oQ94*» fOebnng o-rbi H»« Mail tor"). .o«,a\fW» 
menu "ptnellM’’ (i/loilm). EUpbnoi in the biggeu nnJinl in IhU ceoalrj. 

Only tone fin ego on lb> any whlrb Ionia (goii) to Cnnnnniro. n mm mil fmrot o<A 
.Ska*, So) w e'ophnnt i Ibo nfcpbnat pimud (OCQTB, 

onf, otlB») bln ibrooth wish bin imk. end killed bln. And no« hear n third proverb 
a$50fl>9d]b do J.l4 gjeilaoo? 1 0»3B« modtritnnd th>«. The MUM rf th» 
In nor diMonll (dlfleoliy ^ltatooe) ®eA bim»- rhn *rS (dS) «f * , “* 11 rr-nluro •rhlch 
Inhabit! Ibo bnlr of n moot tend. a»jf* <Iomo) means the ciotlure Ittolf. Tie intoning 
of tie pro-orb It tha. Some t.epl. do only oL'Ille «ork, bat they e«j«t n greet ">*•">• 

T— nitnffwi 

*«ite>aot.«oaf<* nuns luwe-minl Biro* od*» BOW nflMi®*. reCLaA-i 
*f«i» aj.vDUei? *»-* av4dBi«nl tnios aflm ojotienua uoki. “ «n*ao's>r‘ 
a^miAmoi." B olonSoMii«^af "eoe-qi, ojotb” + *>nn thtie) 

aoa**.j®S rrOaot'. aoolako «jeo a»* mnoi-.iAeea*. ®v« <»$, V 

>^TB ono«*i* "aonM. 1 ’ m s ir*iin| «i^.»ntniifclo*o «onn. ® O.-AJP. m» 

aigjae •e*oo'ain» *»a ojotBaArm (»** + ro^ot 

BOB'-* aiB*o troutflat-atb'-i *03 ojonotAaorfldleno^aj. no ouWCMM ^ mOi 
aaAgjoii oM'm oi«Oa evtbimsmqmi. nfamOi d«owo («•!» sin before n Horn, 
MaomaBt*, BOooinmcA, ono.ixm; Aotaanbr. e^v«nA*rti niolbor on. ntorbnr 
ling i 180) uxffcqaMan? *1301001 *X3»>." •*aj,a>SW •gir» 1^x1 



o»:» "UWW( *>&<» B 0 ^oooje o:afVB ftci, ®a«T"- xTai 

tflamuMchat 41m •»J>0»<n> D-nAsAo »« *®noa *j"'!(i]-. 

f^mraia.’n oMmjOAMW *a1 «*iio*ibj (flj'n Aotillar, T*rb m», 00140, 
il Ixli-Stfi thM Ibe Mtfei bM V-.» p.rforu-! .aUr.lj; >u { 1M). «(T<1 Jmc '~J* 

“BO* -as*®"* •«->* ftlT«»sr 

(or f 71 ). ««lo«»o *^ja* on^fl|P«iiar.rt *ya»ro tfg. •a"* 

un— a* otailoAa aj»m an Meta nsBaiWto«f idi® •‘Obj'*” 

<oma *3 BB atm. ®a ajtfnmi>gj'»irt0 wm»>: oTIu •&,** «o fa > mwrfl 
aign c-u^ra; kjW'di. d« •« O «jW!aT. iTO. 

104. floaioi ©ruflliy croliA ffloUarrojp Oajoaei rojo exu&ljg 

urolrt mSdXScmoojtb'oA $300 o6r^ If *1 *»1« in tho 

light u ho it in the light, we hire fellowihip one wish * nether (i. John 1,7). 

Ltl. He U the llg*l U •«, la tho light If rallcla*, »tth «t1 «h»r Mlnr* 
otiip io (aim). 

105. ®oox«4 ag)5:crn rroejoeirci iorj fflia^ABigo^o Aylcq acros 

ODitDogo omooMcrti^Aionh irosai mao >00 oojan$ 

cm^j ®«e.a^t 1*2 maojorn ail^aijjao At be tri*e to cheat not only mo bat 
•bo other people, n* f*r m possible, I nhall give him wb*l be wants and send 
him •■ay. 

<9>^n*a(YnS<Jf3raiOi*0»o>'* ; ''S! l,n + »'* (P 1 *®*, —w ) + «>•■ Ibu n*«a«: 
u fix n lU p)>oe or nonirr pmibl., u Ur u poMib> 

100. SBT OJA a<r»0 aiojiifli <oeiar>Dd> siaoq&oo I »m glad if 
nothing of thi» kind will happen (occur)- 

OA klad cr sms*. 

Jj 134. Besides the tcrminAtiou *** there i$ another form which 
may be used to express iht Condiiio/ial Mood of the Verb. To the 
Verbal Noun or Infinitive of tho Verb tho tormina tion ot the LooatiTC 
fficA is added. There is a conuexion between “in" and “if” also in 
English. “In doing this (Ger. indem) I shall be satisfied”, means “if 
I do this, etc.” a>^s s i m n ©a**** a^rneaioUbki «^e<rO«tm 
al>g«e«iCiT» It It ewne# to tbit, tXit vfcit*o«f«r I do ii la Taim, 1 n-u t 4lsa!« yea. 
B 2 v a?te a®< vita itbfl>«KTWD?oJ «t®d(t 6 o4)<rntnt£lejo rnlsm^»3c»l 
C^o If j«o fin m (hi boon, i fhiii do Miitbiaf hr you. Now we may under- 
stand the origin of the particle o'JjeOrt. It is only the second Con- 
ditional of the Defective Verb o^cna^ “if it it so”. 

As a real Verb a£)crorf>> is scarcely used and it means as such: “to 
sound, say, think”; aa an Auxiliary Verb it is as much as “to sound 
thus”, “appear thus”, be such. Frequently we bsvc mot with the Ad- 
verbial Participle wi*f Uu» and also with the Adjective Participle 
before Nouns (wic^a u&m sia* the Matfaenc ofenry) and before *aa 


(*$ec tb. .iriw oC lot.). Even the Participial Noun 

croruni, ^nnaiib is employed very frequently «fi 4>mi ojo 

«r* jura.ol 01 U Eiiun tfao (tiud or -bon ;m .pots Ufot-ty and 

both of the conditional terminations (e>t* and »<t*) wo see affixed in 
agio-oDci and o^ablo^ As an Adjective Participle we employ «ar» 
also in connexion with ®a»o (see § 8G) •a<w»*o “*i"? i*«* *otb iso). 

§ 135. There is an extraordinary use of the Future Ttnu. It 
sometimes indicates that an action is performed or a condition is kept 
not once but for some time (aee §91). Thus: «««o* mol 

<*ircui*«i (old TCMioo Of 1 . .'obn i, t) means H. i. la ii ( bi .Mra.i. In a similar 
way the Future indicates an action which has become habitual or 
which goes ou through tho length of time (just like the Imperfect in 
Greek). Wo render this in Euglish by Auxiliary Verbs as «>nsed”> 
“accustomed", “to be in the habit oP\ etc.; /. e. h. «•» <w i») .wuiionxd 
lo ga arary d»j to tc bit fither odoj'S) rflxoatm »«*« We 

see that in such cases tho Future is employed as a kind of Pro- 
gressive (§ 106). (Qf. what has been said about the Future Adjective 
Participle being employed with the meaning of a Present Teoso § 91.) 
Thus we read iu Dr. Gundert’s Church History (page 2) about the 
early Christians, hence alluding lo things passed: 

•jaeama mtuA rflaiOtRMn a»™ CoJOo. a«f «a‘e*ss«a» 

(Ibf Lord'. Biipf-r) es S)a,3fimo$o; eanofld 'n6 0 J«i-o. *«i«* Blto-, 
•vmcTiajOCqo; «*(*«*•• Bjitsonud q_j ncrmcnOflo. *«n»aiwb •«uWni>aj»m> 8 : 
ira.j Bjmainb oat»<ao<lstasolf* ojoaw mi Wl*aOb (t't~ »w<>t>id On.) 
moo oajoolcOOo; ■M*iro.r\*i>» <$>(»*> (b«piwn) d>.^ly)d)oo. (See besides 
the exercise, page 104.) 

§136. Ex. 103 shows that also the Adverbial Participle of the 
Negative Verb — «> (full form o: «•«) eacj o*m is in use (see §116) 
“without being", “without", “besides", “except". «o«rfW* oi^nua 
nflmva. aiMaolW mogjosytn ««c«a*s w^ot« snaj aj«eW»1* 

If JOB Ml like (hat, joo onlj ImuI jonnalf -ilh .Is (/(/. oicopi lie oMumaoa of ton to r°o>, 
ini >1 do., not .o lb. lav do: rut from Ibelr asrtts (111. lo Uolr Mil wl Ihe .llfbto.1 
dofeti -111 .one). ofUa.* «(vfl *** mouftao Tmx -ID 

« lir. nor. ib.n i-o jo»r.. Thus may serve to form a C'omparo- 

tive instead of on a*>M»<n<M«ai«rfM)«.»»>, etc. Also the Negative 
Verb of has its Adverbial Participle — «*em(T> tro 

miqa SV M »«!*,. b. abou »• without -wiib. Iu the same way also the 
Adjective Participle may be formed («d^>b», sumo), <u«t>o to^pora 
aenojyc* ad&nfefcc m o^ojo^wen^acao? n»i 

poop]* tx*Ai Ur hln wbo hM (jot) no uon; to t*i u poor ra»oF An CXprciSioil of & 


similar meaning is: ft'ilc«£h “except" after a Nominatire or Accusative. 
It i8 derived from a* rut of; l* off; U otnptj ; f. e. oo oj ' ao *ooi 

oi»X(a maigrflMtag Bendoi Got &> oot »onhi|i Udibar out mart ej“ <W> *3iji a> 

ymaran id g^itoema ^eifas !»xTn<m ill tbo iwalcii of «b* famllj with ib> 

xoapikn Of f«siij>u» roxow, w it .<»*. to iw. In the same manner 

tie Participial Noun may be formed (ap^iioa**, — *, —si, 

g?£j 3 OWKUfti ooam» »g-»tniaim *»<m Ht »ho U »lthou« !•••, i- viiUai 
Qoi. Qi^Boag sentmicti «©«t *»»® B..rj «• •tth ts« txooptloti of the 

Ci»uor i. oil)’ > cmitoni. Thus »ai >0 ® (almost tie same as aswo) is moro 
like “without" (Ger. “ohne"), «oa(>eo moro like the English •■besides", 
••except" (••auaser”). See § 223- 

§ 137. By adding or o^jsilejo to Interrogative Pronouns they 
become generalized (see § 130) and thus Indefinite Numerals or 
Indefinite Pronouns arc formed; f. t. oa*.. (or Proit 

whiehvw>er sot — no frolt »t on. uftaqo ('boro < 403 , wo;) onJ ij^OjIuSO^O 

whororarar, f. e. myt ooair miesags 1 ought him 

throagh tho vhola of lie (oil orer thot country, (— ***** 

>g^nS — co) vlifxktwccr » 4l**y« wbcooe*w, f. 6 - rflftn xpj 

abor* m< itwrr U nobody (vfcioMwr Mi. ojjy^^o foe «™h NH^or, 

K>w nuL ag|£)o fez. 10!), coo^) rb He *»>*«***« notbinf whium. 

Qgjtmorrao (from imw, 4»y ( — «^»). »b»oi»M, J. t. in the 

prOTerb aoawht WUticorar U 1», tboie will te on-bray 

<for It); WlfH» asws-aj 04 *U«»dW» ajnn^jg ifdr imu 4ajb 

tb* ktag won! cut for a *or; ^cicoj tyutb Ho gore eoa>e property. In a 

similar manner *<> also may be affixed to Indefinite Numeral# to render 
them more general. Thus: o(j)gjoajoio (all jAf*oa», /. t. o£i*j 

cni\**(m Mi&ta.fB© aafuqgcoJVflM XII two (wb^oorcr) wbo tutfcT*, will obuJn 
tU*. «rf»34f (d<* tejKboc) *ko, <C vfetaotw. Just SO a.UUCBo ) 

43TO* (^jQJOs a-iAiflo Let u.inv bcavt Of wb»l*COTOr), nnre; 

a^Wej* eroB onr*, wieJi cftj» noror. In a similar manner ©-tu 

^n>S° 0>t 11 ^ •'“ lu Further on, /. e. 

^ Ov^l Took out tU tb» rz.Hk lo It. noifll ft^5) a^CXKtXjQjo aia 
dajKftl H« o*Ttr «nt to tbfct finloo. o^bD03CtU>I^O # Uii tlno; 

«vu»3). out of season, « being privative here) q^j ^ 1900 ^ 010 * m,/l 

i.«a ®»'TI irfWoii mra®. it »nr timr *od .1 »ot pUce <re sh.ll «xl Ih.i umr. 

Iii tlie same way may be employod (§134 ex. «kd 

wbstsooif, f. e. ffij* 4A|) OP a oratqpit oi« o®i&r) ie-omWi Wbrao...r hu 
dou. thl«, I shall ptnbfa him (.bs-w«er If hs dlit that). m<T> &a£\o<n mn"a» <4 
c&a 1 iboll do ouybjw wb»4 I llko (1 bowi«?tr my wish acowdlg- 

* flv’ujrull* uoftl U Tamil. 

I* a bill do). «•» (tu<*)>*» oajgii* «09»jafifl^ (Ho nl*d h're it roodir 

ony fealp). CO (TV ►it OTS miauatlojo (mtO> •*■ rfi&oe;? Will (bit dlitrwo 

owl (*k« d»y *»"'•') Ol »0 J i loo? OiVogjlm * Or rtf) asubo**'*** ot^i Fcr 

huogwi »k* bo oai owiall ony tin. 

§138. (ex. 105) show* that <013,101 may he used 1 to 

strengthen the intention implied in the Future of the Adverbial Parti- 
ciple (<•/. § 117). It is employed this way in sentences introduced 
in English by the Conjunction "that" or corresponds with "for" before 
a Participle, f- e. .iMOgjMnert f-n* un.09 0*1/ Ur ahmisf 

OM ho Mid Hit. <nrn> ►sromvn^l vorurB Otfsrre Bo osou IbU bo in«y I TO no (or 

iomo«). See § 117. 127. 143. 

§189. ooi^cmgjin ex. 105 is the Personal Noun of am«n»ir® 
ii la wrMiuy. Thus (ib<i -kvili a M«n«ry|. The Future of this 

Verb aoxroo, aojsn*, oajsrwo as well ps the Past Tense a-usnil and 
the Negative form ooisrno we have beard of already. There is even 
an Infinitive or Verba! Noun aaj-sra<* (frfcndibip, bit?, *bt i* immiu ? 
even so^tnotirv*) and consequently also the Conditional ©msnv <8>lcii 
(it aeiwwrj) scarcely used in colloquial language, an Adverbial Participle 
Oa>anj ajooi aud. of course, also the Adjective Participles: a<ur*m, ao. 

oaiai. aixrrji. oa rvx* «tsjht» r^vtoxt otvaTocjtH •i^Sarf.-rr' ec<a< ( — la-: 
o - eojewdn) OjrflM****, elo. Ooo diy tulng obliged by bnii:-« so go lo oaolber 
'II logo. exj*eio!««»orfV»aja moa*A*U»^) !iS3dT «9 7hai. who oagbi to fiova 
hmrwted *"’• ■Imili i* (lloMarm) pretompwouoly. arflom 9aWl<» 

u*e«i ibi lormury slrougib for rxompUohlBg lUi. 

There is another Adjective Participle •aim (not tho Negative Verb 
a a. ns), tlie Neuter Gender Personal Noun of which oaiffrojj is very 
frequently used (very much like aa.a'* l ma) /. e- tooilom *sis 
owmij It a l hi opHo* ifcai oogbl lo l»« iloppod ift shut jp. roa ajoftei ixrag 
7b i* it *a*i i oigbt lo Uto. sioj"^ and eturoa correspond, on the whole, 
to the Impersonal "Gerundive" of Intransitive Verb* in Latin; /. *. 
obU«lKMd‘jD Ktu oil lijarloron U *o < qi— fr m$«a iO.TO>i-i>«ftG»TTOR!. Also the 
Adjective Participles of *a.<r*<r» will l>e rendered by the Gerundive in 
Latin: UWr J.g.ndu» (ms.) axaf ajrraoo; billum gorcDdaoi (nv») e*i 

In the sam6 manner we fora also all tho Negative forms: «o B 
OoySrBOUTO A03J0 iBIOim Thi«l«»n ato**l»«ry Ibliig; to lit dOin90OaKl6 

Ho m oor wboa *o do zm ™ i hence the opposite of •o*»(m* will he ooj 

smoorr-a tboi *u*h « oot *oo-.oi, »i Mwiuy (OQierHofl 001 

§ 110. STAoaaoa in ex. 106 is a Verb of great importance. A* to 
■*. see § 111 and 200. Infinitive no.***, Present Tense «►:**<!», Past 


Tense and Participle «»t«v, Future It means to “hold”, “re- 

ceive”, “take effect” “suit”, “fit”. Here it is as much as “it is well”, 
“it is acceptable”, “proper”, “well”. qj«*tp itTina^ a*W, cans* «aart 
cftMfc If yo» will wmt hare ijoln cm Monday next, It MB bt wall (<•/. $ 141). 

Rftmark: TU dayt of lh» urei are m follow* ; <mW,*\35g («A*A mwo 
woek-dty) MonAiyi 3Ia«) IWiay; fiY^UXOOjg *•»- 

Oiry) WMr*rd*yr Q£ptfO£ Jopitor) Thu’idoy; (AOstf Vcmi) 

TM*T i cafrilao^ (cortflStUro) Saturday; tftnoCDOOjg <«•»•<* Boa) BanUy; ^«k 

poj§« (ai§D elrek). 

Exercise 1. 


I. ►fflaOUiKdi 

n. or Ortytffl«t«*TT»*rr* | * f *° V4# 


1 . cndcrmaA 

IU mMft* or <T60i#^TTa»M. 

Exercise 2. 

Hurt are dlrforot.1 klndi of wrtb. tomo kind* w# vru for ewttl recto o. Fee dry 
«r©j* eni bomlKOi red o*rth It tho proyar thing. For oittoa owltlratfca block Mrkla Mil 
be bitter. Brick*. till*, ea4 pot* are so ado cf tint j^uw'i rod worth. If thlft clay it ireddnu 
mixed «p, out oS by a noxld, dried In cho ion aid barred fa • furnace, we call It brtok. 
la tie «imr nannor tllet ore mode. The jwUart of thl» country relret Sret of oil oortli 

tollable to Choir trurk, put it for i»u er lhr« dnyo ince vettr. tool ood mix U op with 

MttMf. By treoilx* It Tory well the oUy broomet twdor. They coke a little cf tt, plot# 
it la i hr c&ldee of a whrel ond Urn tho wkaal round by meat* of a otick. Whoa tho »Ue) 
It ttrnlfif rootd, ato the cloy will terx, ood 10 tko pot aisamco o rc«itd irure. 'lie potter 
too *«t* tho pit with hit hood vhotemrer f*rm ho lihet. 


ajjgSITJ. CSdrfVO £ekPfcj«lfl«e ajtO iUWJl 

0to |tU opposite It m«wyn.i wet oeltlTniion) 61AJ£l&g£g a-KXio. « 

®qya|g si 3JB»gj A*Qcqo ft3gtf.«iarqo Aowsa 

ffQcqo * re*.. oa> 

oOaAtA gn$ aig^^a m*teri'ton otfrm flprBttfl) to. 

SO aauimnrik eorTwia owgos ojtnte *joqot ejg <s*f 

^rro4f\axn>* tia^tfdranof^ Cfcj oj'atm ift& tjpptm (tvrrt^ 

maC^'i>5k «:gx^.<a^rilor. coa.<h «a%q^ ora aigjotT^'ii.o <r,f ajVri&aj^j 

TO ji^T.rre oa s*:^M>ro n^OQe, oVi)qgacu>A 

^U)«o<k<o» £.tnsm n, *ir«, QJsVl] ^a>m°4 


<fc*n arci s-a. <A. to ih« Fator* T?d*w 

oapJoyod In OiU titretM, .a: 5 m.) 

107. <o^rg «rogjo 2>™rnlg fQsaetutt^o aj&iacn>^o omo 
<oil<3ilojcro«iajo.lcb 2>u ftcxtfbocnxai malaa* «*:>5r>)2oa£l<!nctt3 If you 
hid oponed your atm a little, and looked to tour left and right, you would hue 
Men this fearful tiger. 

Lu. You ay#» littl* h»«njf cco&ed. Inf: oad right liATtog toco, if ax this fcoiful 
tiger «uul£ Unxe stos. 

j|OfHrT», 2 '*<**• ®o«tc; ®S« left tide, q.«Js right ilfo; caAdfl terrific. asoiUip 
■<*» -f- a<t» *fcu prolate* for, »•* § J27. »* 0 *» „ dr:?j*d boforo o Soan. 

108 . ml etonsnvoWaaianjis aQjc^Aoam a® mi aoi^araWra 
" OTOCo ajooiorrfc t®(t9i jo •&^Vs$rmlgjOfyo I *m sorry I cannot answer 
the question: why did you not ob«yf (Got. ich kaon ja die Frsge nklil 

109. tfsnrsiaoaj, nfl ©3j)<J9 aanvxB^tfcmeftcfc a®oo4o ovOaoo 
arnoi a>sl^*^ilgjoa»loi<m o®rro asm® ajosun^jj »»a? Did noi 
Morthi s*y: I/opI if tbon bodrt Uen boro, my brother hod not diod? 

omwaj Yoc. of caoSe*>aj; rroaaoxi'vfc brother. 

110. «ro>orA moccoo m£\acoo oj'ocyo o^aklci 

aJlmma agyeroto aoigjaioroocD A-xa <&CBco*joaio qjIojdioo «Y$aa)<?t 0 a 
csJlgjOgjO Surely rt id not the thought of a happy man to say: I had better 
boon born either a dog or a tiger**, 

aJtaam*, aJlnrre <G«r. das 1st a^fcl dor eadtnkc ciMt glflekUciiaD Memohoi). 

§141. Though a condition is always a statement made in suppo- 
sition only, we meet in Malxyolam as well as in English with two 
kinds of conditions (ex. 101-105). The condition as well as its con- 
sequence may be a matter of reality, and in this caso, the Predicate of 
the chief sentence stands in the Indicative Mood; /. r, «<**!*• a-*aa ft* 

fcpa* (tY.oaod* miq flo_.Jo .tr «ajU4>Ajf coalrx> ajomi 

If I do Mt get 10 Ropwt, wbatfOfTor you a*y *&rim me, il win sot do for tetiof tt*. 
In ex. 107, 109, and 110 we see a different kind of condition; the reality 
is only assumed and, therefore, the Predicate of the sentence containing 
the consequence is in the Subjunctive Mood. In Mftluj&Um the Subjunc- 
tive U indicated by affixing oua5*tfla»e or to the Future or to 

the Infinitive of tho Verb; ofl eft *»* 

<&(rx If /cm hod nni Ihw, I vould h*»a di*#d. o«r- rnatffi gjaftas flenBxaTkTX^Tn 
■Hcl filmic* caKz:<r.^n &mqi )a*rflacr» Jf a dsg hoi bron h*r* lurking 

kudlj, bo woild buo »v»k*Md tho irMUr. If I «ori» yoa I tboald UAH it oioe. 
•oa-b flfiMf) rr^kiai1»is^<ST^ftaAkitA fcwm (a^oa^?*). 


Very frequently wo see also employed tho Subjunctivo of the phrase 
eaiui* {if. § 140), namely si<A3££a<x>l<Brra; f.e. <n*t 

Stic* fle.i*i^ono It would birr Utn cell, had jou ant (ooa tbun (set) tS. 110), 
e«iia is an old Infinitive instead of *<*>*». As the Negative form of 
8iJ!«. is also the Negative of suinaioliarre is *u>o.^'fcpsi\t» 

"® (ox. 109). 

Sons think n. bat IbLi tin; U iu war «B*rfk*(n.JWhafl«llrfl8i'T0*ni‘. «irnti* 
qaanre o' thflr beinr nod «ejj maib 


T«J mj to, bit It any b. »roos <tr»>iuA BMarflftn (UfX^OMWMfttj- 

co 2 nnoottBln'lAiii 

Pathor (Torr Ukalj) ator uj to-day: “oo* S' 5 ® *‘»a tm" taro* m:*a 

•od tf-morrev: “ 30 " 

All these examples show that in this connexion ogoftnmi, ox&oTkjl 
<•> or always implies a doubt or supposition. So also we 

say: ams ini aijjowil^sraoniloldozogjo -oil, ha m.j h.-o arrived. 

§ 142. «Bo>a:m<«, «l a >tr^>* and ® w***'* are the Conditional 
Moods of the Negative Verb (§ 124). Ifcsides the Negative Past 
Tease or it* Adverbial Participle (aaiftaxa^. aT*«*. ■!«■<««) the 
Participial Nouu (•ooIcexbo®, anwairb, c^irixure) may be employed 
as Well cnictoa) O£jM09 itara 'CU no trues, u mud u: troyiol eo-itcclg'^ — . 
Tb*r did not doubt aocute tnxcoao (gtjji taint its). 

CHwf) lAid *h*t wai iwi c r»» 

In colloquial language especially the Conditional and the Personal 
Noun Neuter Gender are u«ed;/.e. 

Why did ** Ml dftUia tl*m (g 102 )? v&zjcix ftiafnftgjtatsoBg * 

Whu a n$rcj, thus »u Lts« not txostia rrt» d* out sce^axal o"a:«ao(j u$ 
lucii a kind ^ nan! s>:m »<3 £u_j! 

It ▼** foolish it*! *o hATA not doc* U bt- 

fore *03 m§i m. 

If «© do hoc serre tbo liTng Ged, *o oom- ax* *auaft 

«WC a gT««c sin **)s*3a*eft>arf ©ajjqmo^ . 

Caalfttoul of AVpstfrr Verb*: 

*j#x5'-4K4mw* it <ho> did aoi loro. 

If <b.| do*. »x law. 

Very often instead of all these different forms of the Negative 
Verb only the Negative Adrerbial Participle Past Tense followed by 
the Auxiliary Verb ®<£* is employed; 4Wm« Don’i .pan instead 


Of <tfl ojtflartM arfWknutW (instead of **dW*a>fc or 

oWarfV rngjaP.-A) fwrfc afacm ajfe&air If job do *x loiirts In fbCuroi 1 ebiU tcid joa 

lafiuDla*:*'* frr^fWoaotoflt. 

<n>ir«* 3 fir«i*;gj>n 4 % «tc. 

§143. (ex. 107) (109) m>a»«?V*gi (HO). 

a. The Verb g^a* (»$* b%<>* B^aTIft) as a Verb means, "pot”, 

<< plftCf ,, i "CASt", f.e. ©« *fcp fi*<* Pu* ihi* t*uus inio 

froth voter. ajkj^aT^rto wa (oJ'uu>cc.m) sc ovoBiqj) <a»^J10!3^T» Wo ought 
if pilot thh *bwl of tb* j*:k tr** la tka p Imo (**n«t to dl* n lolo, dtf oil; WVflpfA 
to piiai, birj;. e<xfcj^<k •toJ' meaning as 

much as body or in this case) often* 

icon: s$»*fl^ I>j* p«KtcU thre v tluniiialvr^ (all fir®. aftsre:* loviris (CC jl I tv 

tedj eud woundM tbe wbolo of It with tholr took* aa4 ciiw». 

b. Asex. 107 show* *** i* also employed to strengthen the PuatTenso 

(“to emphasize ihe power of the Past Tense'’) or Adverbial Participle 
of a Verb, indicating a precedence cf Time not as strong as the Nouns 
(luiau, «a-** etc.) employed in general (aomvsyHh or gomweo § 76. S6); 
f.e. «r> 3in/lr* rai*o>(«ib 1<vj*rfl OMI *1 mWla «em* o-> aiUt^ 

d'.crpp'i Q-TT^.a uyxW** ana3 (TOWWMdkM aenua* *a<n> *jo Oo to tbit 
Uvjor, mj wlum ind toll him that 1 tkoold t* Ttrj fU4, If ho would U kind voougb 
lo Ot tm &*4 mi bb (ftli jQ nuob, Wj). 

In ex. 109 we see eg placed between a first Adverbial (0^049) and 
uai. In doing so the Past Tense “.■>■** becomes n Perfect and 
stji is os much as «- ) o.ooltfVa*rni'ig$ (§83);/. e. «nami «*■■* *»a oaistfBtsj 
Volh.., I h.r- nni 4 :op tut; by adding s* to such a Perfect an Adjective 
Participle of the Perfect is formed, corresponding to an English 
Rein tire clause in the Perfect or Pluperfect Tense; f.e. nil ilut he 
■rquiixl ancwti iroaurfl«pgMiM>MV*B: ©aii^l^Mi iroevdloc » *Ui K 

«»• Mid. 

According toes. 110 «n®i very ofteu is strengthened by adding 
Sg. ‘'g most ma n.*aj ("for me” §13S). auef ia.(r„ •ultimo 
®>g •O-.-t <iu ai»j aaiH.aa ct^nj'lJiiO. tud) lor iupr«itlio£ ny lif. 
I l«n my ailix cm* try tod Tool 10 aooltor load <<toj. Ul. •••wb" aauoir, on), 
e®. *uij$ape<sflj mure ou^oni 88 ,,n ** *' oe '* nl «< 

§144. In ex. 110 we met with a new application of tho Adverbial 
Participle ei^col (§ 138. 132). If this •a®'' i* added to a Nona 
preceding the Finite Verb or Ihe first Adverbial Participle, we best 
render it by a Preposition (for as to) or by an Adverb. So in ex. 110 
cgcsT) means “as”;/. c. ■oai* ajVomio^> eioflam>i'iaj>»a is. *u.’«oi>fM'«orZ. 



«a* cr«i!y fetremd. Sometime* it denote* “during", 


a>OMft>aTi «*>nft)^4r < a4'rar\ifc !Ia bai bwn Muff for Ihr## moot hi i»t 

A^rtUodj. Verj often implies tho meaning of the Social Casa 
or is employed instead of e«»; /* f* OTja "*aj ®a; 1 *s 

a-xr* Th. notb«r is lib fair obilfitta can* t« Hr# b*rrw Wo meet €!^<a1 nlftO in 
connexion Trith Verbs, construed with two Objective Cases; /e. roajnb 
•Qfm aierto O'tj^fWruafl aJlxu:n>ld*:m He cootidrrt ne (to to or a*) his frfaml 

(*** §74. L 4.). 

Iq the same manner in which the Adverbial Participle (or&ofl) is 
used to form Adverbs, the Adjective Participle eo"**", *>a<o, egai is 
employed to form Adjectives, (Appositions or Adjective clauses in 
English). Beside* sm (ex. 83) especially on® (ex. 110) is used for 
this purpose. Thus: ai^oamew talo* » h.ppr ™» <aiariiiei>«r). ca® may 
also form Appositions; f.e- a ®“ ) '* os ac<x«*oajo maro »g 

®«isj TU. grral Qol, i Vo Creator of nan, did ihl«. umaflnia riokj a&e<r.'*ai poor; 
g^rroa *Mk*i| Injirws toltab. ale Soo § 54- 88- 

§145. Ex. 109 afford* an opportunity to give some hints about 
the formation of tho Vocative Case. This case, u* in English, is 
generally employed only in connexion with persons and higher ani- 
mal* (hone). It differs from the Accusative Case only by tho long 
<a instead of >a, so 

l. In the case of Nouns ending in * or ct. If emphatically nsed 
the Interjection oao will be employed, thus: 

•to Oh »oo»! 

feo Cdcla ov tbUdno! 

a«.»m Oh «■' 

.rvr rjti'.ttn Oh pr<»s#! 

Oh 0(4! 

a. Sanskrit names ending in «j form their Vocative by length- 
ening i into ©e; /. e. <^^i\ oh u.*: 

A Oh daughter! 

Oh frk»4t ft rsi.) 
fttmjtotfi Oh prlncetu! 
but also 9«o AJSdft Oh unnnJ! 

3. Nouns ending in co drop it and add qQ- /. e. 

4it)»aa Oh aotbor! 

0390 Oh Xfttat 

n.a«r» Oh puwt! 

«. Nouns ending in oj (or <ro) take /.«. 

*>ra>iai Oh lord I 
ojtaua, Oh folb«r: 

'omitaj Oh 

In all these eases frequently tie Sanskrit Vocative also may bo 
employed. See § 256, cj. besides § 235 and eea* ex. "7. 

§ 146. »*»»<>. a»oj«H> (ex. 10S. 110) is a strong negation (the Ger. 
“ja nicht” in: “er kam ja nicht” a*nf *)***) and implies some- 

limea regret or disappointment, if.t. anaui Wb » t • p*** 1 

lb- f.lfcsr <u dm mm), or blame, reproach, astonishment, etc. f e. «»a «•»»* 
aorAqinfl^j^j, I «!* aot know tbot « Ho* can I too* ihfcl “dw *el«s “>h ja nkib*’’). 

§ 147. a- a in ex. 110 means either or, or. b’ **sp "m)*®’ atee***’ 
la Ihn -an.. r»i ar b.d? In colloquial language we frequently meet 
with the following phrase: ■nurt a*»sei «**"■> »b«w h* 

•111 .01- or not *a oaannt kno*. aTljjYot JofTlIBi «*<!» 

Suppoaing llial Ihlorai lad oocorpl bii homo er aonethlig 
«i«o (happ*p*d), bo » qoMkly. In the same way is employed: ofjebkuo- 
a(j)o>lojo e. am ans^cra cncitukhoj^ae^o (mVi£o.-5o o» stbl 
ejo ro* Q_)9)lxOelo BMLmo Ono day moo ■ hall r-wlro tb. yroj-r <««•) r.*ard 
(fenfl •'pro”, **«jatatl”, **to«arda") oitbor for thri. i*>d «o.ha u for Heir aril *or»i 

iojTm /.Xjipivw, “rawiT*" with Dative i n*). 

§ 148. «i( 2 ,d*to» oa ocB^r* (ex. 110) in comparison with *a 
ofco. ®ai show* that in Malayalam the Indefinite Article is put some- 
times before the Attribute and sometimes between the Attribute and 
the Noun. To lay a stress upon the Attribute it i* followed by the 
Article; such is the case with all the Adjectives, formed from Verbs 
and Nouns. If the Article 9Unds before the Noun and its Attribute, 
both are taken aa one notion: "aw * a T’ in saying •'«>*, a m bo*" 
mgj will be emphasized. There is some similarity between these two 
positions of &a in Malayalam and the difference between the Predi- 
cative Adjective (fwydiip ri)v xsyaMp F/k h« hu * Urge be*d) and the 
Attributive Adjective (6 ifs8c; dv>f.o>so; ib. goerf «*.o) in Greek, the 
former corresponding with Bn^mavuai *a (implying also the 

Predicate ax^aamcMa) and the latter with all*** «*b>, •*° | '•'» 
BB*!-,.-® (where ofr* and cr*, arc only uncmphatic Attributes of the 


•muflajovo Dooioamvoi ea naoxqar® {nag*!) **®niB (| 141) M $>«%!•* 
mo-fto (p«*»nl) Ag'.tfM t*£<* b*l) (Una. Bailee e:©l aj^Aosai •a'™ iu 


d)*,. OlOe-t. OBO.OT. ««•££<% (*W 1 j) aJfcPog 

» U Bake 4*ell(. *<TT»«» mojorn *«<«• 

• 5 > aoaaifrnr* x«ibwKlK(> (aJlrfl half, it* Bight, aw»"Voi mUnlght) toW« 
arm* »■>*>» nfloWq* {«ft«l rlghteonraeM) s.e lu-oateoea*. (jmij) *<^4( 
•Mai Uftj MM** ajo«* (aio* le epeek) aia*<o "»*«■ BnjBou. <•«»!*«. 
iMtrnollea) f»i?tne'(iiti Oiem. <oa* *-_«», (bolh of them) ciyw* liWMnt. 
M>jfl ttma^toaMB eteONMffl (*lMi lie, reel), mmvtox'lnej (early lx the nor»- 
Is() «ei< <oynf*$ (eriee) qsowo »W) OMO^o!« ocaiic ajoaea •!•«■> « 
aajWfrfl™ hearth) «.» oeerf (beVaet) ajaJln^sm »tfle **0 o*'*i'*n 

«jg fan* •• *""> (f 108 ). naofai* edtei* o»a«it giafl^: "■otao. s« tvb bojob OaJfJ. e»o1q»OT3Hn:n» eM>om 

ojtoD* «u+ ^rKlaa -20 aiafkw ieia» Dn^. «OJt onsojgor* (8 1*8). 

eoaigaiD ■B'aritt.-raoawT.o* *o® OeifljaTgiawrfVma* <J 1 * 1 ). aao** 

rng( OJiae •a*' 1 *)* •»**•»■>« fiiuaia" •an*" as™ £«fkOe:<t,* ajow 

« *9MM» aoeaeadlet moia^jeeb (doobi) aa«a". •O' 1 "”* ai * •&* •“* 

trT»»« 0 ))i OfofttKk taj'BOflee'mwVviM* acr.ra cam^ «sq rfl 

y»* AtfVf (ai mart m *dl<nv, m 9 lf«; J«d fa Ur.) ^an arfWi* ei*Q (oiiao* 
renemhar) oapfra. (net*.) o^«V (**<<1 thermal) or**, nfWt m*a» oajrO aa <*e'' 
(elaaa) gim'iai^W B <»! c_»3 ^orfUxAo attfluU (foe.) on. QufV» rrfV.fl 
( rrf)l<»iaj) air. a. it* ; «t.alorr> raiWi t»<rfW-al (ex. 100 ) M(|io 

oftf ojBtObI^. TOjOtrf® *»»•*> ajeirooexa-. neirt mige *noi«J e«rai»e 
Bojafij^m Bi/Ijj enema «•*:*.» Ba^awnacfl (f 14* “ae") aflafljg. 

Fifteenth Lesson. 

Condition (11. Pari Conctssion). 

111. oajolgj «oislgjD0<ee6mo o^rra 6 raoot aiaxru 

onon^o a.|p l MocTY>®,\ejo feoWjo mcmocul oajrgnalgj 

Although I tell you every day to clean ny shoot, you noror do it properly. 

LU. My ahMa (ysa) aul eliaa id I every diy order alikoegh, j.u it sever 

■ ill d< (HIM oren do DM). 

112. ffiojA sow'JQ^nxttosiooilt'j o ava.-raiDisiloirDoas aajooosl 

ai'^SMh3«n| aiaoo Oohmo wcoo oim^fi>9 oo 

«DQiW>m o®»o)a^o nvanu»on'a.^Q^ Although theee (men) ai» woak people, 
fighting joyfully, they have «on the victory after having undergone great 
hardtbipe. In doing »o tboy plotted their king very much. 

1 13 . rr®lmooo^oejo as 1 <Mo o^)im aj'/ao'mjogpftrrio itoo^iqj^o 
rnloB^d) ®a<9»i^a*Do Althoagh the tiger grows grey, bo will bile: who 
among you known the meaning of thia proverb f 

rrv&nAB to 070 ^ gr«y. 


§ 149. By adding m to *>M (or <aa>lci ex. 111. 112) or waM (ex. 
1 13) we get the Concessive form of the Verb. English “though,” 
"a! though" (Ger. “obschon," or “wean auch") c^ojo <a,3^)«:ie)o <ua 
<U0 OxJOdbO § 116), Thoijb oa« burs* Ioomm, Un data iM K o »»»y 

(Pro*.) c? utd lot cytWap a>»:c^ aim.) AUtwgh Ifcls lody li rtdursd lo dwl 
the «t>tU wit! BM i«. Also the sceoud Conditional *>■» (me 
*&<*> ai<6i*\*tx. 104. 105) is transformed into a Concessive by adding 
»•. «>§g| aj|OajMKo curfWIai. *>o wa* »( »i»«J 

Wb»l h« boon Ho4*n will 1« ioiuibsI, nororlbokw Ibli *i»n li«» by iMoilm. 

We met with the phrase long ago, having translated it by 

"but". We may often do so as Coordinate sentences introduced 
by the Disjunctive Conjunction “but" in English os well as in Mala- 
yalam may be changed into Subordinate ser.teuces beginning with tho 
Concessive Conjunction "though"; f. e. i t*M yo« to do it every d*y, m 
J» bovi aot duo* hi or, nang* I loH you to d>it <!«y, yoo fcavn ul dooo It. 
In the first case we shall write in die second one 

points back as (pi,) Ki in Greek). There is a strong 
tendency in literary Malayalam to show the logical contact between 
Use different parts of speech ns plainly as possible. Thus a great 
many of our Co-ordinate sentences become Subordinate sentences, and 
the latter again are tendered as mere phrases of a Simple or Com- 
pound sentence- Mark tliat the Malayalam Verb is able to form two 
Moods (Conditional and Concessive), which in English or German can 
only be rendered by Adverbial sentences; they are derived from the 
(Past) Adverbial Participle and from the Infinitive. For another 
form, see § 156. 

§150. «aiS^yo«^mo (ex. Ill) 

is a shortened form used in colloquial language as a kind of command 
more polite and less emphatic than «a*m>. It is employed even in a 
polite request: <ro»» S j -so* oa^T* 

§151. aVaKruOCYOtOQo (ex. Ill) ®b:q in connexion with u Noun 
in the Nominative case means “all", "every”. a>oo»Ta>:i> bismvp 
*.vnrb Sr_ii«™. my.f>*os<i4 dally; ovary bout. wax* ai'a’WiimcQo 

■ocun+m al«s>si' gn^B Thr Iw*d« ho orled. ikt |m* b>c*nt Ibo <dl>DM 

lo *bl<h hit Wood *ool »w»y. drqjono aooU<« JnnO" wmoorti oax.fQ 

^(TrimTiTriB I ,ajV<k)«|o Tht naro lot* oboondi, ibo wore m»v will doay 
hinstif ood <w far iht yoij at hit ncdgbboar. These examples show that vaxi’ 
nddod to tho Adjective Participle means the more, its original meaning 
bdng: “aa much as appears” (from “each". In colloquial 

ianguage it appears io general with the Future of the Adjective Parti- 

- 112 - 

eiple. (difl4» a e<\e*> Tb* l«s«r you *»ih a pl»* of aUrocal ihi bl*-»or 

It «tll loot. e.4e»en«. »Q|Q t>» gr®" « <» l» VUoV). *KfBSflnoc)a i&o mn* fc, 
■ok; «s.s»nia" tb? im™ h. h.ori, «k. are forut* never used. 

§152, wwwfl (ex 111) Just as in English the syllable “ly" is 
added to Adjectives to form Adverbs, in the same manner tlie Ad- 
verbid Participle wytf* is added in Malajalam to Nouns. Thus: m~i 
Wiroeja' wulolj; »«i.vie>aTt an(rily; fc*. o%\ anuosl unT How 

«« thta <k.u (soe §88. 144). 

A* ex. 112 (rvuacraja*iO<iY7>305) shows, also the Social Case may 
be employed to get Adverbs, Usual a:? is changed into ana, /. t. uo a 
<uj o.t. ,'yojir<>-»= OA>i9i>nv> You iwut Jn lk*t my larofulty. But: S'jorai-u 
a!»tei*i coart mit»>cu't»^arkqM potato mao Ileskod «itt t«« «iid U®»- 
bctf ierore the judge. In summing up nhat we have learned about the 
manner in which the Social Case is employed, the following meanings 
are most important: 

1. *ir,aTny>o»'D*n>g t r-' ji^ou* son iues:og oooe«i 

iMO-'intiug with tb. helptoM, nine (Urn® the will k. Si..o!»»d *id th® tenth 

ii» you «o unelf -ill peri*. Chief meaning: community, proximity (Eng- 
lish -with", “towards”, "to"; Germ, "mit", -gegen"). This is the 
reason, why Verbs like the following are construed with Social: 
fe^Vajol*. ojiiWwIa®, (rotetms In » hoittl® bumm) ••aba®, jjtmaq®, 

«i:oi *®i«, •roe'^o nma. etc. 

Rea ark: 4do*&ti • 1 mvi hi a. oaa^:^ •a)to t 

i. *o %oq« *8«aaftorr** fltro 

erfiq lienee Verbs denoting an exchange of thought (speech 

etc.) arc construed with the Social (English “U>”; Germ. “Zu"). 

$. fcHfcfUh aaaoiv^ a»± ».o afr* 6 ft vi^*™** ao 

Verbs “asking”, “receiving", etc. require the Social. In all these 
ca»*aB the Accusative also may be employed, but the Social Case is 
commonly used in colloquial language. 

4 . k* ciji 39 Amxrri'tyrry.% a\>2« Till sqa*rt U sot *qn*l to tkAt 

tri>u,n. The Social Case expresses "Likeness”, '-Identity'’, which is in- 
deed. an inward, essential proximity (see i). In othor languages chiefly 
the Dative Case is employed for this purpose. As to mpi* 

with Accusative, see § 158. 

6. mo* jomt aoiOwiWrm -»#<mcoio"». 

Social signifying the manner and mode, in which something has been 
done. About *»»9 see the beginning of this § 152. (In English "with" 
or Adverbs are employed in this case.) 

B. mart aiWino. <a®.-m>3 ntonniB tart «JVi# 

«.) Also proximity in a hostile manner requires the Social 


Caso (Just as “with” or "mit" in English and German are used in 
connexion with a friendly or hostile engagement). But in all these 
cases beside* the Social Case also Accusative *ajQqa”) % 

Ablative and Postpositional words like “am**"* “•aaftfe" (with Genitite), 
••oAtoai" (with Accusative) tnuy be employed. 

As to Postpositional words construed with the Social, see § 220. 

§153. H (ex. 112) choirs that the termination 

does not always indicate a Passire Voice (§119). Very often it is em- 
ployed to change a Xoun into an Intransitive Verb; /• t. 

<lo r* Io> ojOOfcJS* (f* oat) (U l* in * harry) 

(to t* la dlvtr«s») (to fo»r; (to lore) |to tear u uuik) 

The Verb denotes “direction into", “situation in'', or “suffering 

from”. (See § 120 and § 178 IL, 2. 6.) 

§ 154. miOOttaoul^jW is derived from <to rojo**) and 

means “to make rejoice”. Tins form of the Verb is called Causative 
Verb , Verbs ending in <b«* (§ 62) form their Causative by adding ^ 
to the root* Thus: ofl -ao nn «as^i Hnw y« no* For 

other ways to get this form, see § 18$. 

§ 155. mojct (ex. 113), the Masculine of (§ ^ Feminine axjoiOj), 
asks for a Masculine person ; it is not as general aw After hav- 

ing spoken about Christ* Abraham, and Mohammed, 1 may ask: o_j oi 
asjoaooo, moo aQOjfiSWft aiWi(YQa«a*srno? v** ia *h»» tb •« 

three) occht V# to toUmP— At to this Locative of Position (§ 171, 3) one 
remarkable case needs to be pointed out. 

mypozoffifto cj>Io 6 a«sf%u «*-»*» 

Oitoqj Ha 200 out of tho 2000 Kiln **A *onii»;tt«d «b*m ia charge of 

tb* <aptftlo. 

The Neuter Singular o^ig^ci. instead of ac®m<$v*, is to be ex* 
plained by looking upon these 2000 Nuirs as upon an assembly be- 
longing together and forming a unity (regiment); something like 9*. 
(heap) ia to be understood. 

Exercise 1. 
a. The two Coneewivw. 

1 . aUhoofli. 

IL •^■dVaaU u> c* JigjorflMOonaTln.. 

A. Causative. 

•qgxfyu. 10 MM. le V*« « lo m*u lo.o OCffiooVfcjl^, MO. 

«t»"»r’ *11 iU form! of an ordinary T„U. 



Exercise 3. 

Xa»o i be i*« co!-litbn»li and CMMieivu nf ih. fat toting Verb. 

I. QJie*. 

1. <?.■«. 

J. (TOO'HI. 

I «_)■>». 


ft. ••cku*. 

ft. 013A. 
10. ®->gg. 

EXRKttSE 3. 

Kkciuzol! Whit a col** U (Uif A havhar U coming in. !l<u he go: may things? 
A earl I1M with aaras U atAuiing out side. It is a pUy that 1 in short of n»fiey 
MarUm, I Uooglt anob nlo* things! Thf lad** in Caznsnora toagbt a groat dent. 
I lu«o i>> Uoo now; haring dooo with my cooh % I ahall a»d M. All right, ItaUn, 
I *hall wait. BAaunni, bring a chair 1 If 701 sail *our thiagi chtoply (ebcapnou 
a\MO:®i), I shall Uiy *««alhlng. I do not ask to> much. Hough yon say to esery 
tin*, y« will cheat too. Oh, I nescr cbeot il 14ft). What l» the price of this dma? 
*0 Ruw»! Are you nod (and itAt Xo, what * 6o* draw thU kt lha Indlas 

In CAinnoor* gladly took it for this priew tfXit). Then go aad «ll it tUro! Uavo 

you got another oar of tho sano pattern? 1 haro got many or then. *'hat n tho 
p?i?o<f th»? 26 Rupuw. Win do you think’ 1ft Knpata H oaoogb: I ahall »s**r 
gits, nor* than th*. It M M pcoalbfc for it* to git* it for ikat. The lady who 
for oarl y llttd Cn th« horn always bought for 100 Rupees. 1 noror bawd aboil that 
lady, this s only your policy (dyiaa cuhcce**), If 1 gift 10 Rupoe* ysu will make n «il« 
prodt. Xarrr, if M»«1 a« win e int 16 Rupee# fihe) may tako H. If KM wcuW bay 
thli hat for the Inky, how you would phase the child! Xac only ib« rhihl Ut alio tho 
vran who sain the hat! May bet ( $ 141). K Vadan gt'ti lx Kaptoi I shall glre that 
dr#a*. 1 ihall glre caly 10 Bofwdft; a*w speak decidedly (apeak the rod <**&, 

rflic to <09>lv4* Varhal Xcun: «*1). Here Is tbr dress (©•>)! Tlirmgh I abail 

aostain (It rotwi) a grant !»*, 1 wouM like to p!caf« MtoH, Thai la olcs, but KaplUaa 
Deter lo*a anything. 


mx&gjfi! ceftnrrni an +&cxi*an(yi> oy»rr»a^. nna>-6 u&m 

crcsBxmmA MstffOJSRitMMF (ru:oxniX3<k> cnlnWiw^aim aitnT.^W' ojn<X2 
afl^rw. igM OKao o^ar^ natold^gj, ♦^o! wtto®, w.oh m l^ 

mjsduTvaa^ c^srgaxmVu^ncri), <*gg«ulcgm o-a®o 

QO^kb a^crfVjs aoe®^^, Mis 

»>^ axr> no^jrfl, ««*• Aarrai 

crfUwA <ro>a>r»%«iiVa erccoya^^ omy.ak #o:Ob <u wa o Oiia^. **4i51*e 

Oja^UtmTigfggi. ofindt iMAftn ajcxsp *+cm) anotflme! 

«»*£p! otAanq# tsi^Wao^. oHu oa«*rf f to *QfcP e*. 


m'ajo, aiimamr ««sj, ®6g^ oaT", agnail* inmo* 

ejoa'Sifr jjc aJiiiiin *0® auttnofiy><ti»>*s a.<«ol. •a-rnitt oixlu oa icr* 
•*j>rfiailJao>}(ajVi<i«»>ib*). ®oe:®C»fl o*an«aiBoa«cnm a.fl*o 

to*. 6<A*»i cuW> .asaim?' t5 aigjW ofWnfk -*jc afl *1110 man. 10 

EOgJIa col, »on« eorh *rf)«aap a>ifl«aflg|. oJIbdoi aooiM 

•di^t 'Vjrf'iy 91^1 »e arc'll* ajiiiw a*-.n> <«Cj E *B , tf a 100 a^jJ^o^a oaaail 
art j-u . viii s o. rf > ^ «ort Ottilia,, raj h^ctijp; ®ajLOSir.tfr. ■»>Yi 

K en^’®' OOTli* rrO«ih* fng, •)>*.. (IS! ?*:>■» 14 

BioaTii* oaim! »o oo.ijj’. n>>aa<h oajerfl atexflamS os'io* 

>atjiaic acSTnia^i £«*>*•, »gl~i oiq&A) oilman ar^Oieto t^SS. cj'B'liol 

«». e~sra I ! SQgjl* oar®* n:i h *0 S3jj aflfc,*. «oi< 10 oQ^lo* PDQc anno, 
ZjiQ^xto rfli ojo! ojjj B«>! -I™*** a>a«is m^aimn.'loji o »>-6 Miff"® fucv» 
*>f» | a^jjsT*. *ojj mao, *j«*'e*> *qy«*»Ba ***W«p mqj. 

III, ogyanto ojfiaacq ^ aaioMo zootogjacol^o a'jjsinbo »<i»0ol> 
*oi zonoo atcm^j.ftooo smxib *osrra<rol§j Though my outward appear- 
ance ha* changed, I could not any lhal Inwardly also a cbaofio ha* eaten place. 

.\jnq 2 ; tj(>) 40 ckAngc. Tht TyaosUItq Verfc of :i bsoQ* % 

Cflorfl, aaiI IU Vert**: 5 oon |MO»; y 


115. aQJftota oic&o an do yyfio ojbtoo ©gj wnrfclsjo srcrorrft 

fiwaKra anmiOTBlci a-yog) qjWx> moca'ytfc&o^flYoj Though 

I d*J noc pcwMtfM money enough for myself, I sent him ten Rupw* monthly. 

116 . n»o *«^3(uo»»IW>n4o a«i<a> .aarrrocrotagjablejo oraoioi 
■TO^nft o(jyrm Oajocei atwcggjsao ajolajaejl^ocm^ aru^Aairnlacutaqo 
Acorosccsnx Althoogh no do do! see the band of God, «e mn perceive every- 
where in l be world tba( He protect* mankind like a father. 

a.i<l»jip J n« I (o>s gsa ; saivaumfln muf }isv; Biaainl 47*. 

§166. ( 1 U) (H5) point oat another way 

to express Cxtctsiion. In adding *• to the Participle e« (§ 143), 
which in addition to its temporal force convey* u causal meaning 
wo get n Concessive sentence, and 23 ° may be translated by “though”. 
This Concessive ia oven more frequently used than the forms men- 
tioned above. can be affixed only to a Past Tense; we cannot 
Bay but only note, however, ^■Sannr,*," e*. 

§ 157. lu ex. 114 and 116 we see two depending sentences 
introduced by the Conjunction “that". They are called in English 
■•iVourt claa&s" (Objective sentences), as they occupy the place of an 
Object. In Malayalam these depending clauses are made Objects 
(116) or Objective phruses (114) by employing the Personal Noun 
of the Verb (* J o , Vi»eAa t ira) or with the Adjective Participle 



<a<Tty«ot»)-, /. f. ea^ao'B SttJiartVaiianrg »o:^ *o>» I ■•* i!i»i tin *»!er. a« 
rxnj. (i»>< w* mSKiTa'W ao.iaTiueiai iiojyto"ii* *»n I diauil 

th>t i ii*oi Lt ft roy»i p»Ure. (Wo may also form a. Co-ordinate sentenco 
and say ox.. m,rt aojgwla *»n».) So also the Objective sentence is 
x'educod to a Noon or a Noun- phrase: ef. in English: “I saw the rise 
of the waters". (See § 190. 194.) 

Mark for translation the sentences introduced by the Conjunction 

I kos*r l hat you !>f# txai 

t. tri'mdi «j»<tr> a «>'«•» -to «jno awndV^m. 

S. afaefo ij«itn «rg}i*ft«a<n>£j*]Qo (ocmnVqn. 

S. <r>\rn& ijoan a^^iloicra aijnvolojan. 

I kne* tb*t j« bn® mm h.r.: 

1. «*) Btu-IB a«nfeil«iaa «a<n> lo-.n'fiW*. 
i. at: a) Q .1 M ai(nt!ctlo*Tn(y »!•» royni 4\wq. 

S. irfl bu 11»S aunttfOaimg «8*ixfl*^. 

For other sentences introduced by in English, see § 127. 138. 

§ 158. There is a difference between **£*(* *<u and »£* 
•arm Oxifttai. The former simply means Jvuaiai er^at to rosaabllag 

0 father, or b« u like » fee w. “Father’ and “he’" are the parties of 

agreement. Not so in ex. 116, where •****! is better translated by 
“as" The protection of a father and the protection of God are hore 
the terms of agreement so that. *a<m points forward to 
as the essential point of comparison. Thus: -aA^o 
•n# *r>axt B* it mil like ray falhat, but o*p. «Krr> •o_*ioi gjc *4«**>ri «&*adW 
D«4 tkii ba& sot aIttoji pl»r Ilk© a child t 

OojoO^j is the Infinitive of the Defective Verb to r«*aibu. 

Its real Infinitve would be xajtaj or a«»©u*aj. With Accusative it 
means “like", “as". Occasionally it is also construed with the Nomi- 
native (ma:<* or with the Locative (*ailtaiifcp*ij 

coojfC so tfxjgi. Besides •mwaj) it appears also in connexion 
with the Adjective Participle: #^>1111 ejtqOata: 

4a<m *«wnrt r«iaa liu iiv** product bj) loashiaf nr*. For the Future Tense: 
xo jsoio and Q<^s<* see § 210 . 

§ 159. We are now enabled to continue the rule* (§62. 75. 84.) 
laid down about the formation of the Fasl Ttn&~ Verbs ending in 
*<re and n<i<T» (<&y«j»j take ® in Past Tense (q/« 0); in the same 
manner ym and <*cro, if preceded by a long vowel (oji?<to, axiaro), 
end in e Verba ending in HX<*n» form Past Tonso in 

•4^ (ocuaiow, 001 ^); $rn» after a short vowel uoogfro, «%o») 

becomes Verba ending in yr© (o/lpn» v «**<*», a take cm in Past 

Tense © m a>*ra>. 

Exxncitt 1. 

Whsk It tbs PnH T«*M Ml Iks third CnnMMiw of »t* f»U»wii C Varlit* 

1 . 2 . a. a»^o» (stUk). I. enos*<r©. a. roftni (pint). 

6. 7. CU>*tr». a. *»>?«». 

ExJUkClSK 2 . 

Wfrmf 0foij»af4ou». 

Is Malabar tbm ora and Kici-tfiiWnnni. tbm walks s iu- 

thhsrmsn (tarrying < *\->?fls*se*k©) * larg* o»d. Awothsr nos rani* cat the ne*; 
U4ro till otn at tbe bMoh and meads s net. A grcul tnasy ttihormtn (Qju s^. afP) nr* 
jirmatrJ to-day from going to ms- No fish will bt enWiaglot la thb ©ft, the n*the« 

U?lng to largo Ptt'j'J* Alio oacrl flsk by sunt uf a MliaHing-tuku nud by Us (liking* 

book. Is this HMjMrt fro nt* common beats, Inrgs rlw baits, tong cas-tasti, Mowbu. 

PaUiuan, sbipi, siul staa/ttrs. Thst ilMsir cut asohor yKibjrday in ths nviniiig. »L* 

will wHfh sneber this nftsrnofo. 

7ho t. xtfinU/ bsi forgotUa Co bring his D>, skind, sud otWr tentrumanU. 

L«lc h«ro! A smus Mti atur ths road; in s 7*«*l she hsi plsotd ion* Itvc-acslf 
sod is baking <wko kuows wbloh kinds of) •vs*tn>t*l«. Tksia this criip wist (ajg^©) 
sro mu of th* ludoor-boso. 


,0301 mo r®Mli&n.a.®Q. ton. «**a .aa\ omiml, 

Zoiai 1 ) ^ cftoioio amf . roos «i® *m Qjiuiw qi&i Joj 

ntattiv, aiSfltdo. oeoovB'jranh QjE!0*looiQW. a»o>* cOitfiiailm 

cmlg Qjei irxmocwcro. *>ro aj«#oi ojum. qibi Ac<oj 1 oiU.yonroj. 
®° ojuaTto ^1* osagfVsT.Bi, a«^Q.«g eeuilea ajtfWaMMn, «OJ n£jMa* 
aaivfo ^ta^anttf: rflnb ojVIWKi*, (^IHIeian). ®i mu nwtuo 

(Mrnoi® aBMnfWaago •ulme.aB (%• (3«agi) *??le.naa}> a«oTW!.oeo*v a^aetBo 
fOeioam* ojCAMaa^) (miksr kind U Ox atctrfli jiwnl tent for ihipi A&d) 
o'lo^jcaeioi,. oma «9 f/Wy» *ioj-*arr<io m%*o Eg 

»«m e* ) 0‘i<5'l«^ m«6nn uif n> (dajiat). 

anjCBDaWa tone, arfl. **os««fl ©qxsxo ooanawauB bot» 

•o^raTl k m’ er* gfl Qji/Va^On.* ootdisiiB Orta ai^Wxd xf— n<* *} 

o^imikio *|f<T03»i*n* 

117. ogjfiian ijoj^a^ojo o(J)afAo«vmgj 30 a§=cjo og)^cm 

fljmliyoaio jro»n4 ©J/onoZorololaao. If raon moolc at mo, if they steal 
all that » mine and doceive me, I ahall keep silent. 

*>a, •«, 10 iteal. 


118 . moo njsrnl mjyj.wa.cq a osSoorailiTo aoidrtjrm 
e«« filaJCgDS*^ £0>?e3*COO fi10j<g3«A CQKOOtoIoIi oMnlST)!!!^ OaJJiOiO 
If ■« work too raurh uml do not take tbe necessary earn for our body. »e shall 
soon feel exhausted. 

*eufla.eiuA (4 !>•;) ».ne*<n> (§ ISO). 

119. irftajpMooocoo rnliWlsoejo ^floum® aJ<o»:xuiW*c> a(J) 
aero ^ouoatliw <9>y«TOoc^o 30*30* i3*3>c**vr3> aileoftfl) oiftairootrodwo 
Qjlooja^aoyol rrilty^tmusiaoioralcA ojnji£^mtac*»’iffv<Ti:>*<ri8 Although 
human lwip bat left mn, nnd although my former friend* despise mo, I do not 
throw away hope, bat ln»t in Qod, who ia faithful for ever and e'er. 

rri'.e^B.oflarf! je Tr«n>, ofUloe, ofl»l pot away: *e’i'VO<i-i i'»>- Ha "' 
tbia Auxiliary Vreli 'hum* a* ninth •» Mat inly*. (w me*" »3 »"■'•**>) 

-»w *fct mi >ni c nr’. (J 144 |. di'l.ajtTti* n fnithf*! mu, 

QjliA-iT^a f*lUfolD?t». 

120. rr*|3(az30t ajo«»a*30^o a^cnrtna^jOtio n^^smo What is 
right ought to bo octepMd u on<e, no matter who has stated ft. 

ft^o®» — Uvfal. 

§100. Ht. 117. shows that aiaejo docs not always indicate tbe 
Concessive form. very often, especially if it occurs twice or thrice 
in one sentence, is employed merely to combine two or more Conditional 
sentence*. Whether we have to <lo with Concessions (ex. 119) or with 
Condition*, must be decided by referring to the context. In English, 
and German too. two and more Concessive sentences may assume tho 
form of Conditions; f e. u JOO ihou*4 com* Mil d-irA*«t tl (<*enn nuob) nnd It 
1111 nu «ifn nlou^ citrroi air, I roild do tkin <A»ib OjU* cribM 

gaa e>s «eattoi «*g fee'Uiqs 

§161. aQ)a<>4n^ in ex. 11“ show* that by adding boo.-*, 

•na to the Genitive of Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns, Posses- 
sive Pronoun* may be used as Personal or Neutral Nonna Thus: 
■asi-t^ici, a>**j (,a»toiuo(n, .jarSoaxfcaj, *a ***>:*, 

*o>). In English and German we also tiud besides the Adjective form 
of tho Possessive Pronoun imy, ncin* a Substantive / 01 m <ni», iWm, fci; 
d«r nuiaigt, nutio, da 4f^ge, *r wuire; in Gormun even the Gender may 
be expressed: d»r, dm. Am «*.). <yfi i.-e^DfO, -o>, - a ; -*> 

—Si magasaA, — cu; oOwgasoi*, -a.: o<’u$Jaa>»>, -m) «9Qis<*->aift —A,—®; 
•oai*«5m*,— oj; a»a,3r6oaj-i, -ifc. - a , eajrci»saiA, -ai; affrtaaieea »a,Srto 
a.iw> <n*| Sal*) a*U There U o nioe opr-ow-nt Uumi my (.opto nod lU ronn’n Mk. 
In general tbe .0 of this Gentitive is lengthened into <>s The same 
may happen with the Genitives of Nouns, / e. *»«£«*= that or mm 
(■bat tolonji 10 bod) >id tioaoiosVjrboai tbst of Ood. 


§162. &cr»a* (ex. 119) slow that also Advtrb$ \na>j 

te changed into Julfcdivcs nud further into Nouns (ox. 33). Sot only 
tiio Adverb itself but also Nouns or Pronouus governed by the Adverb 
(Postposition) become Adjectiral enlargements of another Noun. 
Thus: ("codec bowej; m ioxtdMirf^afc <kno*U4f# 

*toui OoU>. In the same way Q {the zxrden nwr the 
b9W>; laprnn? &&&,(* it he> roan with me); tflaiautts .* (the 

diy hofor*): ofttrta «fnn>3U« (the »ky above th*a). In the same \fd\: 

fleagKh, oi^^i mzTtoK, w»a, mcm^aT^, w&AQa etc. may 

be Adjcctired (■*i5W*:V^», **»<»«). In adding «•<***, a to 
(ex. 33) all those Adjectives may be changed into Komis; /. t. «*>* 
*r>*xh noAAi^i Transitive Verb of *a«* ****** «* *• 

iUl\ *»ocbeu n «t*W) the beod of tW* family (or roet^rnel undo) lo>k pMMfea of 
wlut woi loft (dM Atrip). 

Some Adjectives are formed from Adverbs by adding rm> t nth 
the augment ajJ). ^^o». o-fi«*m<Tr», waatosM, r rcoaah etc. In adding 
to these forms **oW>, -<b, - B wo again form Nouns, but cbm* may also 
be joined directly to the Adverb ajW*, (from «Jta|) and ajacu 

a»mnb« f^jiOTTTP-j; thus also: *<td «®nng (eooram) tho c*e, the otk«r 
{L*Otb« ow). 

In English we cannot dorive Adjectives from Adverbs, and for 
getting Nouns we must always employ Nouns combined with Adverbs. 
m:«a to- nor row, mrtflm efioxn* tho day of tc- sorrow. mjoaoop ito lUig of 
t>-nKCTOT. But in Gorman we find also this employment of huge 
compound Adjective* ; besides Adverbs of time and place arc frequently 
employed in this Adjectiral position: Morgen, dor roorgige Tag, d3* 
morgigo; damals, datnalige Zcit, das damalige a <n>* 

®», •ojy.jaaa)- Of. in Greek »ri v6v 4v8po.«t'’ ("the now-men”, the 
men of the present day), "oi Milk arpatuatai” ("the Uere-soldiers”, tho 
soldiers in this position). 

The number "two” (cm) may also be used as a Noun: ii"nnt-Ba+ 
«oo-i. as for the other numbers, sco § 246, I. c. 

*t* cib® ».s (S 1*8 e »3 toU) aojMSJ®..* <j M> <*stflnr*o 

Ifivj iiMICI.) aw a»>c^r6 anno (§ 107. 44) 03 ttflSi.,: m-n 

rm (01. 84) »arra aartal^Ojj** *iii» 0'*S' eoo> *^ ^aomoMiu Mfrra 
(®ioairre lord, hooiolord). *®n-aa>® (tanlSo) bo aignt of) oil^rma 
s.usrfl^agjiOi, caflinmsB cnfkcdo (Hon) ojti\ BaiarMfl (*olf) 
4 . 0 a gonosi Oi «r®rn> rf-Jcn-.osiAirnS £<!& ie*a© 94 12? US. US) «i<* 


BO^IS nfigyma uoi^. aa*r> (»*. IT) g^rnia'lgai (gg alia, m/I) carfVte 
S>n •ata'Vtofng c<iB9 a.«nn<c*>o«3OiT0 (fcj «Ik.i ruioa) «®ra aaf (8 SB) 

<*ild bM*t») .®M>o o:oaos (floih) cftiral «trB«£o»<ranfloflbo noj>g 
(r»«A) DC *lgla (5 It) •mi)* f« IS?) aJWl^g 

■doTldii <itb aJWrf)*j>| ;{ US) OJ-MTO »aiT» gagitMis artseani* 

Sixteenth Lesson. 


121. *aa»o;v><DV' n^jOTs oraajoh cutfi^ a-io«ora> aS3m wnncii 
aj)8i oio ajirnl©cnoa*> Z-oil entail ®Dio«aabo a^as ojl§lc6 a(J)Dr®i 
coflgjjio oqjdA ai^a^ajjocol o(])rra nasraio Oc»s ayovenla^ Aa soon 
as the fethar cried "The rice i« cooked", I fini*he«l ell my boaitee; but when 
I reached the honne together with my younger brother, we heard that all the 
rke hail been consumed and felt very sorry. 

enVaa*, enitovril TNotitWa Tub aol<nio.e.. ro,‘Va<-»l m»k» »a end. 

(#*j c.Otn. .nasoiel^ouma^jgft.-e^g lo M grk**d 4 103 ibt'Mw: oymnriV*.;. 

122. -*araoj-3fl0rm3«ioio OtwoeV’ o|J)<rB a.»r>sim»oc4 aa> 

aro^jjaJ aaoo)lcc|®9 Ayrm o®or> ajflcmag) 

“Like the ass of a washerman” which is to s»y ho toil# (and nuffcm) like the 
donkey of a washerman. 

BM^»iimii*rho= onoioianxsnto t« f SSB; e>s8«fc|5«* f 153; for Ovueai >«• 

123. ajtaiooj a(]\oxm crrjjaolajg) OaJOOCi srowh rr>l$ra &2 orrjj 
aolry, 0(*^jaDOr®ifA oirrulgjkiA il tho Father hath loved me, 

so I loved yoa, oontinae ye in my love. JObo is, o. 

§ 163, aojoooail and a aJOODCiilaojDni) jioint out a further mean- 
ing of eiaenw. The former mean* “lo be the rery thing”, hence a«u 
nwfl “Ihe rice is what it ought to be”, “is done”, thi3 means “cooked”. 
Iu the second expression “the rice is also what it ought to he”, this 
means “consumed”, which is indicated by oajjcal “gone” (the same 
as the twofold meaning of “fertig’' in German); J. e. rfi * c3«*cr 
u dinar naif' Raa dy (Ex. 1 1). However, people are not always con- 
sistent in making this distinction afrt> orooftjfcjvsn may also mean: 
"dinner is nearly cooked 1 ’. 

§164. L*. 123 shows that by help of the Neater Participial Nonn 
(| 96. 110. 157) also the Adverbial Clause expressing made or manner 
is changed into the Adverbial phrase of a simple sentence, c* mwgfWn 


»!9 «40Wl a»«^r5a>a ^<vfcei» arr-r acrataoioegj)’. 'Veil, yoa nay nolle 

far no a chair os you node oat for '.til goul Union! {Germ. Du knnnst "jll"). 

§ 165. There are two kinds of Verbs: Verb* which add «* to the 
erode form are called Strong Verbs ; /. e. mb®., 

ao.aD, etc. Verbs that uke either *. or afix the termination* to 
the pare crude form are called Weak Verbs; f-e- aao®, ora®, 
->*»“»!?> «***• “"at- "*• 

§ 166. Farther we diride Verbs (as in English) into Transitive and 
Intransitive: this means into Verbs which are followed by an Object and 
such that express merely an uction or a state of things ; /. e. oeriW, 
oiiot*. snd'ato*. etc. are Transitive; curfl*, nnfin., ms**, 
ailsa are Intransitive Verbs; /.« «•«* ^otmoo^ corf a no®** t toagbi 
3 lh«. meat ) wemi* aflKSrTB Ho 11m oe ■ Wo SCO a Strong 

Verb may be as well Transitive as Intransitive («*:«», <r,=a.i and a Weak 
Verb too is not always Intransitive (sms®., am®, o»«9*). Some Verbs 
may be used transitively as well as intransitively (just so in English) ; 
f. e. B) il<T*TTt !»o»o» ®<«onraa<ui t Da jot mo ikot shlnlog si or » Or fdl 
«jn*o .aoa»**m«rktS J*t<* aitrcu If tbo» epoooos raj .jm., t olioll mo. 

Besides this, there are many Verbs which show a weak and a 
strong form; tho weak form is used as an Intransitive Verb, the 
strong one as Transitive; ft. no®, ®9 *■*»: *=■’*, coins *i 
nfloo®, etc.;/.fl. rrf«a»T go o-oj <-oleho». so nfUo'Wa 

ft aovo Chou pious | 000.1* iKOJia-iaT' amans*nq Wbm ho ting lb- BibjMtt roiokrf; -nort. uOUmtfi* >®=<8 

najoo o.mi«l(ao!6 (|}®i AfUr 111 bNl poracd U* •XMolnolluii, Geroinnrol mode 
kin • TotuiMor. If the Weak Verb is a Transitive Verb, the strong 
form of it is usually employed as a Causative Verb ($154); /e. 

Co do; nolo to do: nags, Mld| Oa.b'wB raake Co bind) ootflSj®, oooTwloe. 

Some Verbs hare a Transitive, Intransitive, and Causative form; 
f.t. nog® Co bo rulofcl. oa^ao to rain, oml ©Oifc t j'ta. eouw Co bo roll*) ; Co uoko 
on. roll lonwchioz. If the Transitive form of a Verb ia a Strong Verb, 
for making a Causative Verb, jji (§154) or oil is employed; /. e. 
to giro (Transitive), orkuVbi so ooste co giw. (See §239.) 


Hvmon »oV», 
a- Cooveraatiofi. 

X« too loir will foil doxn from uy hcol * it but tho will <t mj Foilier l« liooroo. 
Too u.gtit oloojl Co «nr.r jm r hood, else joa -III ootsh > sold -Mfc oil aorulntj. Too 
should oc« meet ot ay told l**d> I do mil nook oS jm ot oJl, bo- ooold I do •> 



UlQklig of mj yroy Haiti ? Ximr (ho Pee ois»»» of wit tf There are l*o ()« to ww. 
(— ran to how, the now to email. Il*i la.pu to Lite. end Ho «W» lo touch. lie who 
dw* ik ft «* II Idled ; hi will, lion Mt percelm iom.ll M dial. Ono wlm li tot eblo 
to talk :« dund. With lolb ef our hand* wo work; -illi our two foil no onn watt 
rut Ho I.M go: « I0TOTO told. His aro ointinually water!*, •'"> M ** fcuiUt 
heelde«. It wtmi you ci mot gal rid of yo«r (lolAutAr; weld you BUl I““ M horo ihi. 
raging loith draw* out* Wlibt ol*e mil 1 do? It worn lo bu tallow. It *•«■» that 
thU youn g >oii la .(awioimi^ N«*« m ad, U. Mai. yell. «ajn “Am0*ll Ilia duaO, 
tho uiuici.c o*o » miiiBul’. ko>k boro! lliia child Ir tadblay. and I am Weiogtho 
but leech. If jou had rfaannd peer CrrO iu carefully aa the oatiraa oro aowMmni 
III do, perki|a you aouU BW Hot* tail m Oiee so lay Uolbffrt. 'fill* roan Vat gut 
a rim* »lam-t to my finger cdliia two Uoada. Tea, hot a rary atm tom ItiDd of ring., 
ho h.d b'tter out Itia Mil* propirly. Leak at th.e baby, tow il m«Aa. It letni a 
oiumb of broad hat panted down tbo many (Anted So, it h trcui loajblaj, liia littlo 
Wither tin fltUcf Ilia, la tbia country girla wear tot only neikl.oen, tsgrr-ring., aar- 
ring. awl braeilet., they bava al>i rt»c« :e the wee, roand tho nNe of Iha fret, and 
n.ked liuta eblUraa y»» often may iro with a riag U .Hear or braai round thole wnlnt. 
lookl till little follow ate on tbo ibo./itti. of ha undo. I hope be will not forge* Ilia Mai- 
ayolarn prornrb, "rhiln! •itlieg on tba lliooldern of Motebody, we ahall not cat up hie 
anrv 1 clink thoie la .tuiKltlnr wren* In bla ««»(, I am afraid it ia tMaamjiHon- Poir 
foltow, only 3 yean ago bo hod a .arrow e.enpe from rAoIrrn.»e, hxking U bla 
foot tna mo; e«e that U aatw nnut birr aolfottd fnm tntU-pm. Tab, be ii marked 
Willi the >nall-]n Ha did ntd like to be totcMoM. yon know! Thtro ate a great 
maay uttly dAutr* ptimUCv <u «*'• <-«Wry. Uo> at (ill non ; li thlo n« tUfto* 
(loti if Tea, It li, and Malayan! tay: -thore la no our* fee elephantine it and eolf- 
oontail*. A of till lean here It a !<(*/, I auppcao. Tea, be U, thou are about It kiaila 
of Iffrtq. B»t It twee i obllirea oat here aiw Ml ai )■>■•! to ai many di«M* a« in 
E»a:po Thla la trwi rtwii. ptu aud ainilar .viplfin. aoarealy o.our, but you moat 
be rrey caraful aa to tio fx-l of ohlldron. Kjwalnv 3 a rary nnaui diiaaia OBOngit 
Childrun. You oiweyi ought to »mr a bladar of lannal darlif iho no atom- Eurtgwuii 
In UO. otu.try froqaonlly «ff»r from btitfuUm and dllfteeot diiordor* in the Mere, whleli, 
of owrer. al>o otum irriqularllit. in tho lift. Hare you a goo! offt&Uf I am hungry 
own, bu: «iy aiiiootb and my towrU nn too wmk to Uar anything nbilaotial. kfwr 
l.r.ii men tima frod I f»al pals all orar lay tody aid either nmirfoy or dfarrlieu 
• ill follow aftor. Bnidca liia ii.iiip-.0llM afire to the hull and IU btolo tro; I onlfor 
murk at ulglil from yilptlHtm, «d all day I an inub’.id by a bad hmdul*. Tuu 
hotter Ink* not lias lit omin-rwf pro.d for aima day.. Wkat -a. tba >atlar with that 
boy jw>t»rJay? I could net dteidf thon and thore whether it was tpatpy or only a 
fafadfnp/H. I kianl that he «n aaarlny tniMudOMly afUiwuidl. Why do you .oik 
aa If yon were* Uy fwf <t Jrtinnifmt only; llial wUI t* all rghl aflor a abeel tlmo. 


ooj^fi\tom>» (one wlm ia in be*'tn. ate g S78) oaeinlo ^iWoaTlftMo accBao 
^-ioo «er3Tla<i0nB 0 , 01:100 aos2iO 6ldbOyW»n0J ®nia.3dQB« 


ojVWmxt. ®* 1 i**w*Ut» oflflMdi a*j £»<;<r*4.>».TQ. ^fvto o^$s 2 jd^ 

(<t>aw>f) <t 9 <C 1 oaa ojrf\iO(nAfl^(mj 2 j cnrm§j. c*>rfc crfWont fi^jn^) -vj^onaxfi** 
oflfljftftji; «£rrttfl» mtfO GoJXDgj **•“** ^W1«a> 

ajasmQlco^\^aft^^<m«a^r^ ajn! ^mvn«T® ft«*« dfc 

n«r* to* v ; Cfma^rmo'Viv *-t» igafltfnj; **.*0 «*ola»rt 

c^a <Y>30jo flower* oTm* ttViaflo *gg dHIBSni; taoy* 

5^r>iO!JTo 'urf) o^j*jj\scA; <n>»<rci< , &'^jinS *v)mku 4 £/!)2ft&. or^j 

tuna* (** 8 HO) ojotH <*J*A ^rfoft^yt «o><£« *<Aqp, ca 

a^n> Bolmaia UGJ&SDaUO fcr*. ®»OjV*>m» <aj^d>Tfla* oa>a&> slogan® 
4tt<L*3» o_*rn)tt|o Kf. m)«|W *xft«ys«iafl£| 

«eo<TOT«; fjo Qjgj QjoVsiry o_igj i9»<fltfOTO> 

pMsoti **ormro« *<^fga<4 i/»«)Vi^. c*? «»>*■* oil ail djlail o\jorr\j3 

iW<r* *j>fra «ojcrB<ro. ^ 0 . 0 ** -sT^j, «£MM»W1 6i<a»3OTttJ>Ct4 or<&*»ni' <*arc* a*> 
xitf** <x*K4<T». mot: 6 ? *rfV%*S OJgj 3 ft^t***™*" I***. ***0 

•<fc iYHf*k:h a *fc^p*vjdon* rcfi <Yf>r>rfcn o.^d t * <jii7> 

a^VsKTOftOritf* *j««u r>1or6o «od* *jokof (MuHapf) 

-a oflSn o.iPjlsa^inril (ao^tAo*, aj^Arol. ruQjtf) *ot ®o a«i s*j\a.<*o 

* 3 «&a*>a* aT*cj‘»saBcj» cai?^> *v*. ^iloji •ion M»Wl Mj(Awi|i«w; 

«»oj^i o.ftrAr» wrfVntafl ^oWnvioBtJ® *3 a a c^^o^/lom 

•»«»1 °*a xiftaa dN^OiOacm; <TOfcj«tonfco *•« c*Qd» jvlcft 0 ^J )»2 

••sir«3*m M ^TW^yrfVrtMk ajftnxrcArr». «t>o«ait»ffnajam 

dflailfil tt^, «? <mgta i>r*_j?n^ 2 »sl*ki>> B^cntal a:*>& 6 k^ 6 <q» Oz*ota9af* 0 <iO 
*j( 9> Mr) a>a<a* cutf*q^> Jloun**$a ©%nva 

<vx/iMMaft msaian osIa.^ aajgaloi*>ao **2 nJ^^a^iaoTij iro>to * 36 ^ 
®$ OA-p®^*:^ e:*n». AJn^ir c? 4>*><V*»f* SAa’fcJ **0 (JftnOfilcA ®rfl 
•m. *3'n>a'lc* cdKTD oaioj! tfnc oaaM «^<ni a-rfc«i:^ c »:»*6 ona^al^ sjtb 

«*>* 1 )mW» fl»a*w 6 o tfMT>^TnlrTf «#3«rf . wo;a» c>A><5i^OD 

</> 2 K«MnaTO a >^*6 aoic&j *aojri> mlcic^rtS •©rrr.; ^itd a-^tw ^iau 

flj©^:nn «viari> pj®«ar:^TO^ mSr^$OV*»"**nVn* 

♦fcM- cn^^tincr «oaj©;*n ^qa ina<ia<an> <roo>cm ^3mi Qjn^oltJlrO 
Ojo g'raiw^-j^nto •c«n». ro 3 o, mx^-fco Qojml* toayoUfrej t>**. ai 
a^o) avtnwlsiaiafl^^^ (oj. qrfl^fto^A» t ax an^aaui) iioa^m 
a^TTo^eJ^x ®c o^w"tt ^^|^Cul«i>»6o Ojj3a_jWacm. «•> oi'ts 

4toft*r» «y»*T % co^ 2>r^a»oo6 *^*j**»>> eca^s** *«h<it 5 McaatfW* 4 »'n>"i 

aryj «7oanni(Tn\»jai\n^ ai^oTcnj cgj* ajost^mg ms^ia.TB. ®c 

&C1 <Aiq^M9C/9 «»>•: xjiOitj &:o)(f\ OCC<^o 

oa^onTi^ a°^- aS\ftma^laA^ ®o A^)*dhfli «w<® 

aiXW^p‘% iQro 5«n>*n>rr» <or a5W»ol»ktf14 c®^T>axii^J «c 

•. «*«• «* 8 US. 4). <t»am>, dibiaiol AiOgjCti fioTvi* a* an 

g$j»> c^^Tkc^ tf ofasmoo^axil^ O-0 *d 8ojcttv,. <oam0^1n\0»0o 

a <xx>xxc<wn» *f»^ 4 i<ro. ajA^a 4 J*nTva •o» tt j:^? oja> oporto 440^ 



<yo dMulaT . (J'aim'lttut c« eai»wT«* 3 ^oma^»§ 

MM* JB'WJ&taaa a.t«iB a^ogj^an. ®rfVn>«* qjVdi® 

orrolal a.«s in aoairflmine. a * a,> 

gjsna.1®. -surer. aniaacaeftoraVrao <ft.8ejln3c «wn)aa «b» now a-™* ojoq 
an*«j. (TO*,! Q^uao olar oieaio c*r/l<**fW» < roiSpn.iorfW) «xn>a '^'•an 

QB.3I8CBO (frounlrruMaaa a*™***. »« •"“fyb"®'* 

<!»•) ra>cia<y3*«V»> i**a-a<ma»««i»rj iK^aon'oro ®on BOKnW'ye««r»» 

(uartaoaioeD o*jjaom*oo**> uia*<« judou *«"* •GrtTX'* **1 dla-30 

■»« nf*Kh e u«nl boookibc »*«-. •'S 

■g— -#i»»Vjaol a a «reaJtt^ oa<J<ZO ®2oot>oeic^|023 *a<™ 
at Sanaa «n'iia mllttaly** a ifajmMAa fllfl *) . mg «<*«*» aaovfc 

•.iV-vaia. jfc-deOiejlcyjJ ’*9- oas ^SQJo4«»nn rrMBOT® 
»!>*, cfcoo'j (TTlola^ (eaafa., Baaftea, aflooMll*) «<u«an 

6*3- c» a «Q*fe BtQ. 

b. Same oilier expressions. 

My I «5 i( * HUla iiailoo 

Crftmptag In tbo belly; ijmlary 
To bovo ipMil (tliiow) In a m:«w< 
Hpetim in th* nzimniUet (*« in oholerA) 
He ji fmrJih now a:d tbca 
OcoruiiloM, ynmljein, Apoplexy, <!eliriix 
Typhm; 4rci*y; ptlty 
RUunulio pda, goat 
Bleppngn of b mch; ln*gi 
He I. Mlooe; »Uo 
OpUtkeltnin ; llrer-ioduoAt^o 
Phthisis; low pnleei tie *•*•• to beet 
IT cmorr holds 
Ittb; boll: *!*>•-• 

Agony: Apprtosfe <£ Aeeth 

t fife- *<» afl^e. 

QjOft.'fVdi era *^^c4; 

«*«?> ojfiJW; fejfrfcj**; ••»aT 


e*«** “«* ort>Kjr». [owirfl. 
mruaptm, ojmxumo, aa.’tyaoarfl, 
aAMMi •OoOOOo; 

aiMXaBald, 000»l»XO».* 
anoint (i« jurors**); «BJtoMaof*e. 

■saira ^c*e» xeeTi; (gai. 

eJ-tS"- jJ). 

wchgg" (»»>ck«aeitee, ^a»i.oti.oc). 

*r» (aao)i ofleuft (or». 

*v/*maa.C\r> <^irrra\>»Sf); 

124. sroaioi axmaci aa^.oojjjjjo •eamjosia'oo stiutg doo sroa* 
^>wtSWi ogjOfifl^fi. 0 **bk*J Ao«r>oqfecoor4 eroajlosatoa »®|J aaj4B0 
(OioKTcai^j-asrrtOAcra a^ojotiq o^)(mye ^Debtomo ail| n\mjaaco' 
tDtm After hariog ioqu-.nd (ia tho metier) m far as powible he did no« fiod 
the Wl feuh in hie neighbour, and abandoning tbe felie feeling of honour, as 
if afl people there could subsist (live) only by him, he felt happy. 

Air AS | 

of t&o thros wnross of «Mi*; god. rLioxtAtwiD, triheW*. 


flr^diOQJ|jj>o = «oc^»o_i<lai; qjJ)Qp^cao • Ml) i®® tuanp, it.i ai»oi n 
HU 01 o moire. p.vdle*™-* + mflexno folio failing of boron. 

125. wwooi a&^acto sra<u.£ men*. auoio a^sicm a_io)aoer\j)a^ 
Afi)cDo«MQi3(i& <m*o» ao_icrcao ^03>3</^^l‘oli0«cn»«Qj( , ro Sroaii 
ajlotd«cn> 2c«m\slcoW*rnlaTf sraxih eitla^eoDCol <rooVj|<r« Certainly I 
do know from Ibe manner in which they emfle that in order to mock at me 
and to turn mo into ridiculo in my presence (whilst hearing it) bah of thorn 
did pUy thair asual tricki 

Otfxioaeo lniiitir* or V.chal Soon of •»*«*<*; the Partial. <j(J) .mploywl «» 
» l«»«llT0 !»«•>«'«; »a,ft (la ponoo); -.g"a-.rer> mik. pUy. 

126. afl cnWiio Ogvi^ocncflio ftorvoao) JWcrn)|j , a»ng>BAj«a^ 
colocrio a_nrnl<flo (Oi<a*a>g^o sraocA roloroao gj&il aioto You are not 
as diligent as your elder brother, therefore I shall giro you tho hire according 
to your work. 

«B,<gvr.»a» wo ; 101. CT-fcOJif^o (if. r»«<Ufg.) w.tfc Datir., m* DeftrtHe 
Verb "to Co #t", Fut Portlelpl- ae» It, aeaort nllalile pmoi. >a. filnua. 

§ 167. To form an Adverbial clause, expressing manner, besides 
OOJOOPI (§164) also (n-jdhoon (§157) in connexion with the Adjactivo 
Participle may be employed; f.e. mirt ioum^o^ t£**a<t* o.rq[Va 
< oft a^iareoB *at<o,ai«ocugjj. •uaetQisxa'taiXB If yoi bod dure u I id- 
*I>«1 you, J1IU wonld hire tho-a ■ cbirMUr Iwremlig a min. 

§168. Qig^o something siinilar to «a-o«<u and ty*M<t» in fn^opjo. 
OiBioipc, Btaaiaipjo, etc. may be employed to fora a kind of Adverb 
(just as woofl in § 144) mftjaijpf. — irxiraaTI, o * 0,ai R‘“ 

•xbV otjom in eo*«a>|jp is the Future of tie Adjective Participle and 
atott^aaoo^. meant “so that it shall be worthy’’ (of a man) 

^amto. Q 'R®< originally a Noun, means: “shape”, “form”, “manner”; 
hence sujr- (n’+a'Bp) “‘hi* ■»•<>«'’, “th*”. It may be affixed also 
to the Negative Adjective Participle; f.e. tonrii oj<w*»aig^. tab* 

ou» io that ii u oot damped. In poetry it may occur oven after the 
Future Tense of tho Negative Adjective Participle; f.e. iu the Bliiga- 
vatan: <t\a\ a< alomiB oure Xoi moil grim tbs gift io that It will 

ret 1- .’..Milos -1th fair. 

Hence oko^ is especially used in English sentence* like tho 

Hr is io kind ,u to gin ea tbi. trek boioO is ojitk** <*or> .oo*.a,p» 

Ha <||> *M 10 ruda u to throw it:c«i ■! bib e®" A«ferf'ms<ma»Qj 

Ho vu oiUatkd lo lock t iWiioi «U cr«o ti> voile cwW not I- bond diitUml; 
«njjor*.i i n*%> gysgaforfl aerftarttraaigg. maj-ti on® WUwfl^j sojiaflarra. 

The Past Participle mo* (used like the Adjective “fit”, "wOrdig", 
«'pas9end”) and Ilia Adverb ( fna»:»orno arc always preceded by a Fu- 
ture Adverb o«oj or by a Dative o«*ajp$»); in some 

ca«i also by an Infinitive talcing the place of a Future Adverbial 
Participle; J.e. rnlooto «wo ) :<a» <rfvoi<Ti'»B >orm rv^iaixtfVvMfi Voor 
>•10 15 oio m lo u dHmliwd, »o ih> jodf» .Md. In English “fit for” (fUr) or 
'■according to” (entsprechcnd dew). But “worthy of" (nQrdig dee) 
or B* »• vorikj ct Loo^r fis>n<r»’<n) ioic£'“to. 

-*t pwpar. 

§ 169. «e.o:a»aii Infinitive Form of aA<M»cns, the Particle -a in this 
case conveys the meaning of a Locative. It corresponds to aa Adverbial 
clause in English beginning with “whilst” (asimmnKirfWlr* § 128); 
f e. «**6 «>«ro mart) O.jtpo ro!OC*.a»| Whim I ■ucmMcH, n Mob 

■to .-hild tirf killod ll. WflOl JO.V.JO. >01.-6 B-. OM* Wkllll «b.i rn.n -a. 

korinf it t ihi. word. — The particle »a in many cases renders the 
word to which it is added more conspicuous. In the examples before 
us it serves to give the Infinitive a Locative meaning, artem being 
as much as aiMrtfal j..t 1 . Mai**; now and then also expressed by « 
arm, oita, 0.1 im u 1 !« •">< mi of twlngi in the same manner ®ri 1 ao., etc. 

§170. Definite Numerals and Indefinite Numerals are very often 
placed behind the Noun to which they Wong. Thus: «»w»*6 <*•**»- 

sjrTgsiowla* •joratO alien a*"** Th-r* ru«r au; mluaka la ih« bwk. ^ortto 
».ma»nins> nfl a4-»x«s|: 70 M ,Mf 5 OT *** , ’Vl' »? »»r*al«. 
care e.T> afu'lt* «s<m a*o*ro Thou l*a ore UWnf to on- »»I lb- •*"- troioo. 
Feme of these Indefinite Numerals can be placed only behind the Noun; 
f.t. -*f|— 4 vta>». »hol»; *13. syrxxoo oaiagimr Too mn-t do tb. 

duiw tbcMugbif. Others can only be placed before the Noun \ f.e. -a 
5 ( 1 ,, aorjJ. Bat aottexip (auoni. oU, whole!, aceftv, o» M MBB,i t*hl'^i 
/. f. noioc**<fe aTigrt* avooi^o tfoiinapj Tho whll— ralMd ortrylhlti la 
iu boot- Some may be placed before or behind, but if placed be- 
hind more stress is laid upon the NumeraL «msa«fe «“*• ®**»f a- 
ms, or '-.-Tjidi turre. 

§ 171. aTbcirfto (Ex. 125) shows that the Locative is also employed 
to convey the idea of an Instrument, of Means, or of Manner, by or in 
which something occurs. «eoc6 •oc9 3 ' l fa'^ «*®« ‘• on « *" a ’ 

«<6o asatlai H« ll aol • uoa *oflbj 10 b* tnnlid lo, Ihli 701 imj no fruit 

bit wonU.